Early Amerian Automobile History
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Copied from the 1901 Horseless Age MagazineCATCHPENNY ADVERTISING METHODS Automobile manufacturers and dealers, in some cases, are adopting catchpenny methods of advertising. They photograph their automobiles in uncanny places, on the tops of almost unscalable mountain peaks, on Niagara's ice gorges (hoisted into position by block and tackle), in mud hub deep, or with loads of humanity standing upon them many times their normal seating capacity. Sometimes they insert large factories in their advertisements, covering acres of ground, only a small corner of which they occupy. Advertisements of this class are to be condemned. They are invariably intended to "stretch the truth." The best that can be said of them is that they are founded in ignoranceignorance of the strength of materials, nature of road strains and horse power required to overcome obstacles, on the one hand, and ignorance of human nature on the other. Their result is plainly to mislead and effect sales under false representations. The average reader, seeing the automobile pictured in such positions, imagines that it is something between a road vehicle and a flying machine; that it is able to climb like a mountain goat and to cross well-nigh impassable morasses, and that its carrying capacity is as miraculous as its climbing abilities. Wise men, ancient and modern, have remarked that it is not possible to fool all the people all the time. Manufacturers who, in these early days, are founding their hopes on their ability to hoodwink the public should ponder these words. Persisting in this policy they can scarcely count upon that ultimate success which comes to those who set before themselves a higher standard. ( End of Article)
Every automobile that was put into production from the earliest days to the present was advertised as the best car ever built. How can this be when only one can be? Maybe they could get away with saying "one of the best". However, even this would be stretching the truth to its limit. There were some blatant lies 1n advertisements from some prominent manufacturers that could not escape ones attention.
After researching well over a thousand companies with all of their models, my opinion of the best one ever built was the Bailey Electric automobile. S. R. Bailey was a perfectionist from the first sleigh that he made, his carriages, and his electric automobile. He manufactured almost all of his parts with machinery that he invented. Today, his extant automobiles have the same machinery as they had when they left the production line.
Shown below are some of the advertisements which are outright lies:
1903 Ford Motor Company Advertisement
1904 Ford Automobile Advertisement
Notice in the left block, that ad states tht it was the first one in Detroit when he was riding behind The King automobile on his bicycle. Maybe Ford forgot about Lambert, Duryea, Haynes, and 75 entrants in the 1895 Chicago to Evansville Race.1900 Haynes-Apperon Automobile Advertisement
Elwood Haynes knowingly falsified his advertising from day one until he went out of business in 1925.
What was the first and when to manufacture the six-cylinder American automobile has been debated for years? The answer is, the 1901 Gasmobile that was displayed at the 1902 New York Automobile Show in 1902.
Copied from the 1901 October issue of the Automobile Topics Issue
FIVE models of " Gasmobiles" will be exhibited by the Automobile Company of America, namely, a 9 hp. Stanhope for two passengers; a 12 hp. "Gasmobile Special" for two passengers; a 12 hp. Surreyfor four passengers; an "H. C. Gasmobile Surrey" of 20 hp. for four passengers, and an "H. C. Gasmobile :' of 35 hp. with tonneau body.
Beverly Rae Kimes stated in her book that if this car had been put into production, it would have bee the first six-cylinder made in America.
12 H. P. Gasmobile Special
1901 Gasmobile Four Passenger Surrey The "H. C. Gasmobile Surrey" is constructed on lines decidedly foreign and the carriage is not unlike some of the well-known foreign products, being equipped with a four-cylinder upright engine located in front. Sufficient power is developed to travel at high speed over reason-
ably good roads. The "H. C. Gasmobile," with tonneau body, introduces to the American public a high-power, high-speed carriage in which it has been the aim of the builders to combine elegance of appearance with superior road-riding qualities. It is equipped with a six-cylinder upright engine from which the highest speeds are expected to be realized. The "Gasmobile Special" is one of the most recent productions of this company and is the result of a demand created by enthusiasts desirous of higher speed in the two-passenger vehicle.
THE "H. C. Gasmobile" of thirty-five hp, the exhibited
specimen of which six were sold at $8,000 before the show was an hour old, represents a
class of automobiles not heretofore were built
In March, 1902, the company went into receivership and was reorganized.
Copied from the March issue of the 1902 Automobile Topics Magazine
BY reorganization of the Automobile Company of America, Mr. Albert T. Otto, the former treasurer and general manager, who was one of the founders of the company, and Mr. Alexander Fischer, the chief engineer, have retired from the list of officers. Mr. Otto's place has been taken by Mr. H. C. Cryder, and rMr. A. W. King, formerly of Chicago, become superintendent of the factory.. Mr. King has been connected with the company since June, 1901 among the pioneer inventors and engineers in the automobile industry. Mr. John H. Flagler emains president It is generally believed that the principal. He was previously well known in Chicago as one of the most ingenious and resourceful reason for the reorganization was the disproportionate amount of capital expended in experimental work and in developing certain types of automobiles which have not proved equal to those simpler types of Gasmobiles in which the company has done its most satisfactory business. (End of Article)
In December of 1902, the company was ordered into bankruptcy and was sold at auction for $100,000 to Richard Currier, thus ending one of Americas best automobile that had been made. The machinery was moved to Mamaroneck, NY, by the Pan-American Motor Company, and a new model, Panam, was built.
Copied from the 1907 Automobile JournalCars That Helped to Make History
The frailty of fame is shown by the picture herewith. Standing deserted, except for the company of each other, in an unfrequented corner of the yard of the Packard Motor Car Company, at Detroit, are these two cars, both famous in Packard history. One, that on the right, is the patriarch of the Packard family, being the original Packard automobile, a i-cylinder gasolene car built ten years ago in a corner of the electrical factory of the New York & Ohio Company, at Warren, Ohio, by J. W. Packard. The car gave many ideas which have worked themselves strongly into the evolutionary process from which the present Packard grew. The other car is Old Pacific, which crossed the Continent in 1903, and which also partook in the memorable New York-Pittsburg endurance run that same year, getting a gold medal. Tom Fetch drove the car. and Tom, now being employed at less sensational if equally important work at the Packard factory, occasionally wanders over toward these cars to look mournfully at his old pet.
1903 Panam Touring Automobile
In January of 1903, The machinery from the former Automobile Company of America, the maker of the now defunct Gasmobile, was moved to Mamaroneck, NY, for the building of the Panam automobile by the Pan-American Motor Company. Some of the most prestigious minds in the business and with lots of money were behind this venture. The first model as complete by October of that year and was a dismal failure. The second one was introduced in 1903 with the same chassis and equipment as most cars being built and no more than 25 were made before the company called it quits and its assets were a truck building first,
HoweverCopied from the January issue of the Automobile Topic
Exhibit of the Autocar Company of Ardmore, Pa. with a six-cylinder engine to furnish power, and this is located in front similar to the foreign carriages. It is built with a tonneau body easily removable as well as the road-going front seat which can also be stripped for racing. While this carriage has never been tested to its extreme limit it is quite possible that seventy miles an hour is not beyond the possibilities of the car.There is no evidence that this car was put into production.
Overheard between two conservative aborigines oi the stone age gossiping in front of their caves: "What do you think of this new way of travelingon the back of a tame horse? Some people think that it may take the place of walking." "Oh, I don't know. It may bt all right when it is perfected and when the price of an animal comes down to where it ought to be. But now they say that only a rich man can afford to keep one, because it needs so much food whether you use it or not and because it is always sick or something when you want to take a ride. I don't sec but that a horse is likely to break his leg any time on the road, and then, what is a fellow going to do, miles away from anyone's cave? No, they may be all right tor millionaires' pets, but walking was good enough for grandfather and it is good enough for me for a while longer."
Albert L. Clouo
Cleveland, Ohio, was another city with a great number of companies building automobiles and several models were named Cleveland. Most of them only lasted a few years with a limited number of cars produced.
There were dozens of companies who were in the automobile manufacturing business in its early stages that had American as their name. Most of them went faster than they came and faded into history. Beverly Rae Kimes has them listed in her book, Standard Catalogue of American Cars from 18905-1942, with four line descriptions. One of them is the American Automobile Company, Cleveland, OH, incorporated in 1904, as never making an automobile.
The American runabout, illustrated, is steered with a wheel, weighs 1,000 pounds, has a long wheel base, and is driven by a five-horse power single cylinder motor.In this combination the makers say they have a machine which is simple, reliable and durable, while presenting an elegant appearance. The single cylinder motor is water cooled, of the four-cycle type, and of simple construction. Lubrication is effected by gravity feed from one tank, and is turned on and off by the same lever that operates the electric switch, the crank pin and transmission being oiled through the center of the crank shaft. The ignition is of the jump spark variety, automatically controlled. All contact points are enclosed in a dust-proof case, and so arranged as to insure a square and firm contact, while especial attention is given to the system of wiring. All wires having heavy rubber insulation, are water-proof and equipped with stamped copper terminals. The current is supplied by one of two sets of dry batteries, the other is used as a reserve.
1902 American Automobile Advertisement
The American Motor Carriage Co.'s Plant.
Its marked contrast to some factories where only absolute necessities for
the manufacture of the product are provided is the plant of the American Motor
Carriage Co., of Cleveland. This concern, believing the surroundings of the
workmen have a telling effect on results, have secured a lease on the former factory and
headquarters of the Interior Decorating Co. in one of the best residence
districts of the city.
A restaurant for employees occupies the second floor, together with several smaller rooms which will be fitted for the convenience of patrons. On the third floor are located the drafting rooms.
1903 The American Motor Carriage
1903 American automobile Advertisement
Elmer A. Sperry organized his Sperry Engineering Company, Cleveland, OH,
in 1898 to build electric cars, he was well known electric trolley street railway
executive. He soon began to experiment with building electric cars and he completed his
first one in late 1898. In the summer of 1899, he contracted with A. L. Moore o build his
automobile for the market in eigth body styles with a 31/2 H. P. motor priced from
$1800-2200. The early cars were called Cleveland, Sperry System, but later called Sperry.
A hundred were made with a great portion shipped France as well as some Cleveland cars
that were made by the Cleveland Machine Screw Company that was owned by a French
consortium. In 1901, the Sperry automobile and patents were sold to the American Bicycle
Company that was owned by Alexander Pope.
A. L. Moore, president of Cleveland Machine Screw Company, Cleveland, decided to build an automobile in 1902 and named it after his company. He had formerly owned the Sperry Electric, but sold it to the American Bicycle Co. He incorporated the new company as the Cleveland Automobile Company, with himself as the president. Production was begun in the fall with enough parts to build 100 cars. The company made their own two-cylinder engines. He was out of the car business by the early 1904.
Letters to the Editor 1902 Motor World Magazine .
Motor PositionYour editorial regarding location of the motor seems incorrect from the writer's standpoint. Common mechanical training taught motor vehicle builders to place the motor in the rear where the connection is more directly made with the driving wheels and where the noise, odor, heat, etc., pass away to the rear without bothering the passengers. The defects of the motor (becoming less each year) forced some makers to place it in front where easier attention could be given it. These statements will probably not be doubted or criticised and, if admitted, then the fact remains that the forward position is an admission of weakness on the part of the maker and not the proper position for the motor. In our own experience we have endeavored to meet this weakness by so designing the motor as to overcome these troubles and still leave the motor at the rear. We do this by placing all the working parts of the motor on top where they are get-at-able from the top by simply lifting the cushions. This makes them as accessible and handy to attend to as if placed anywhere else on the wagon.
Regarding the weight, permit us to say that weight in front is
objectionable and dangerous. It is objectionable because the front wheels must be pushed
and weight in front tends to drive the front wheels into the ground instead of over it. In
case of a break at the front, the momentum will throw the hind end over, turning the
vehicle upside down, resulting in a very serious accident. When the weight at the rear and
the front end strongly constructed, front breakages are not so likely and much greater
safety results. Further, the heavier the machine in front the easier it Is thrown over
forward by applying the brakes. This has been frequently shown in the past in the
experience of the front driving, rear steering electric machines, which have been set up
on the front end by a sudden application of the brake. You can readily test this for
yourself by using a front wheel brake on a bicycle. If the front wheel is stopped the
bicycle takes a header. If the rear wheel Is stopped it simply slides and nothing happens.
For this reason, if for no other, the weight, brakes and the passengers should be carried
on the rear wheels. CHAS. E. DURYEA.
It was distinctly stated in the editorial referred to that it is yet an undecided question as to whether the front position is the best in all cases. All explosive motors, even the very best of them, and not excepting the Duryea, get mulish at times, especially in the hands of tyros, and then It is worth a great deal to be able at a moment's notice to throw off the bonnet and examine the motors. Another point is that while there may be a little more sound from the motors in front, it is a good thing to be able to hear the hum of the motors because it is a most perfect indicator to the trained ear, of proper or improper engine operation.
The motor in front is up clear out of the dirt and In the best position for cooling by the currents of air playing over it. There is less vibration on the front wheels and it is easier to get at the igniters and lubricate the cylinders. The weight of gearing, occupants and carriage body is sufficient to properly equalize the weight. With multiple high speed cylinders with their additional complication, it becomes more desirable than ever to have them under the eye of the operator, and as the high powered, high speed machines are of this type, it seems the best position in that class of vehicle.
Experience teaches all things, and if there was not something to be said in favor of front position, why is it that all the fastest racing machines in the world, which are also the best grade climbers, are so constructed? This is a question Mr. Duryea will find it difficult to answer and prove that the rear position is the only correct one.Ed.]
Copied from the 1902 Edition of the Automobile Review Magazine
Subject of Gasoline
By Hiram Percy Maxim
When the explosive engine first came to be used for vehicle propulsion,
the explosive mixtures were obtained by drawing air over the surface of some of the highly
volatile naphthas. The mere passage of air over surfaces moistened with these light
hydrocarbons absorbed enough vapor to form an explosive gas, but when ordinary naphthas
came to be used the more volatile portions passed off first and quickly left a less
volatile liquid which would not evaporate by the mere passage of air over it. Heat was
then applied to increase its vaporization.
Finally, the original Daimler Co., in Canstaadt, brought out a
carburetor in which the air was not passed over the surface of a tank of gasoline, but
instead, in which the engine was permitted, during its suction stroke, to sip a little
spray of gasoline out of a small nozzle fed from the tank. This little spray was drawn
into the cylinder along with the air, and so vigorously passed against obstructions placed
in its path that it became vaporized, mixed with the air and formed the necessary gas. The
troubles with surface carburetion and low gravity, or not easily vaporized oils, was
obviously overcome at once. All waste was avoided, as the last in the tank was precisely
the same as the first.
Some of the carburetors were placed long distances from the engines and required the mixture to travel through long, cold pipes. It was found that if the passages between the carburetor and the engine permitted the spray to become tranquil, or relatively so, and cool, that it condensed and reverted to liquid gasoline again, and, as a result, caused only very weakly carbureted air to pass into the engine cylinder. The liquid gasoline remained In the inlet pipe and caused all sorts of erratic performances. This lesson, while not generally learned, is rapidly becoming understood, and carburetors are being placed very close to the engine inlet valves. Where this is done, and proper baffles, or obstructions provided to compel the spray and air to intimately and quickly mix, all complaints from "bad gasoline" cease entirely.
The Milnes, in England, in their heavy gasoline trucks, which received such favorable criticism in the recent Liverpool and also army trials have even carried this point a step further, which shows its importance. They provide their machines with two fuel tanks. One, a small one, holds gasoline, and the other, a large one, holds kerosene. The gasoline is used to start the engine on and to run until it becomes warm. It is then shut off and the kerosene turned on, and the engines run with it from then on. No other change is made. The engines are standard Daimler gasoline machines. The carburetor is merely placed very close to the engine, the inlet provided with baffles, the Incoming air warmed and the kerosene spray handled vigorously before arrival in the heated engine cylinder.
Here, then, are the gradual steps leading from the first and most imperfect carburetors to the final perfect ones, which entirely eliminate waste and troubles from varying specific gravities of fuel. When we hear complaints of "bad gasoline," we know it is an acknowledgment of a poor carburetor. There is no excuse for any gasoline-propelled automobile having serious difficulty with any grade of gasoline. The best machines are able to use any grade that is offered for sale. The nearer it is to kerosene oil, the more power do we get from it, because of the greater number of heat units per gallon. There may be one specific gravity that is best in point of power, speed and odor, but the advantage should be one of quality only, and not anything very marked.
Gasoline and its Properties
tSome interesting information was given by Mr. B. W. Roberts, the well known gas engineer, in The Rudder some time ago on gasoline. It is also called naptha and is a byproduct in the manufacture of kerosene oil from crude petroleum. Gasoline has a specific gravity between that of kerosene, which is heavier, and benzine, which is lighter. It is classified in the petroleum trade as A naptha, B naptha and C naptha, A naptha being the lightest of the three. Petroleum is supposed to be of animal origin.
Startling, as it may sound, a stream of gasoline can be poured from an
ordinary oil can into a fire, or a lighted match thrown into an open can of gasoline with
impunity. The top can be removed from a can of gasoline, a lighted match held to the
opening, and unless the can has been quite recently filled, no explosion will occur, for
the reason that there is not sufficient air mixed with the gasoline to form an explosive
LETTERS TO THE EDITOR.
Motor Position Again.
I notice an article in your March issue relative to motor position, and
that you take exceptions to Mr. Duryea's views. I will state that I am in no way
interested in the manufacture of automobiles, only I want to see the business prosper. It
looks at present as if there were many manufacturers that desire to build automobiles, but
cannot decide what style to build.
1902 Locomobile Advertisement
1903 Locomobile Gasoline Automobile
An entry in the Boston Reliability Run which has been the subject of considerably discussion is a Locomobile gasolene car entered by A. L. Riker, and manufactured by the Locomobile Company of America. This is an entirely new departure in the line of Locomobile machines, the firm's reputation being hitherto identified with the ubiquitous steam carriage which has become world famous. The new Locomobile gasolene car is designed by A. L. Riker. The engine is of the multi-cylinder type, situated in front, the large car having four cylinders and the smaller car two cylinders. A feature of the engine is the improved throttle control, which permits the carriage to be run very much like a steam carriage. In other words, the carriage can be run slowly through crowded streets, thus obviating any danger of overheating the motor. The carriage is built on French lines to run on American roads, and is fitted with many important improvements. With the high-speed gear it runs in every way as smoothly as a steam carriage, and has ample power, so that there is very little occasion to drop back into a lower gear. The large, 12-hp. car will weigh about 2,000 pounds, and consists of a rectangular steel platform placed on four 32-inch artillery wheels, this under-framing containing the engine, steering connections, etc. This chassis can be equipped with any style body, and will be built in two sizes12-hp. and about 8-hp.
The Locomobile Company of America is building gasolene carriages because it believes for touring the gasolene car has many advantages, but believes for all around work there is nothing so good as steam, on account of its great hill-climbing powers, ease of control and absolute quietness of operation. The new machine steers with a wheel, has powerful brakes, and its working parts are easily accessible, particularly the engine valves. The gears are easily changed, and run with little noise and vibration. While built for touring, this style of car has covered a mile in 1:08.
The company will build two sizes of gasolene carriagesa large car having 12 nominal and 18 developable horse power, to sell for $5,000, and a smaller car of about 8 nominal horse power, to sell at a lower price. Ten of the large cars are being builtthe first one having been completed early in the summer and having been run about 4.000 milesat Chicopee Falls by the Overman Automobile Company, a concern which has a close business alliance with the Locomobile Company.
1902 Stevens Duryea Advertisement
1902 Cadillac Advertisement
COMING OF THE CADILLAC
Detroits Newest Gasolene Car Makes its bow- Many Excellent Features.
No company ever started business under better auspices than the Cadillac Automobile Company. of Detroit, Mich. Formed only a few months ago, with all the capital it can use and in other ways adequately equipped, it has already made good" by bringing out the Cadillac runabout. a smartly designed, soundly constructed gasolene car. With such a car a more poorly fitted concern than the Detroit one should go far and it is simple truth to say that it will.
If it had been an automobile
ALMOST on the anniversary of the death of the late President McKinley, the
Nation has come within a narrow shave of losing his successor. In the course of his
strenuous life President Roosevelt has often faced death, but it is doubtful whether on
the slope of San Juan Hill or on the trail of big game in the Rockies he ever came closer
to rubbing shoulders with the grim monster than when his carriage collided with a street
car at Pittsfield, Mass., last week. That he escaped by a miracle is a matter which should
certainly add zest to the spirit of next Thanksgiving Day
Suppose, however, the death-dealing street car had been
an automobile. Is it within the bounds of possibility that public outcry would
have been stilled so easily? On the contrary, would not the motorphobiac editors still be
denouncing every horseless machine with all the strength and vigor of the editorial
vocabulary? Then why this discrimination? Simply because the automobilist is a law abiding
citizen, in spite of the fact that his liberty is hampered and checked by absurd and
possibly unconstitutional restrictions. Whereas, on the other hand, the average street car
driver, to fitly represent his employers, is a tyrant whose will is a law within itself.
Taking his cue from his company, which usually begins business by debauching the
lawmakers and monopolizing the public highways, the motormaii knows no such thing as
public safety beyond clanging his gong as a warning to fly or be killed. Passengers may
get on or off his car at their peril; vehicles in his pathway must clear off or get
smashed, and even the Nation's Chief Magistrate must know better than dare to presume on
the motorman's right of way!
Brothers Henry F. and C. M. Spaulding, owners of the Spaulding Machine Screw Company, Buffalo, NY, incorporated their Spaulding Automobile & Motor Company in early 1902. A lawsuit against the company, by the Olds Motor Works, for infringement of patent on the motor delayed the production. After themotor was redesigned production began with a suspension that looked like the Oldsmobile, another lawsuit ensued. Finally, it was on the market for $650, but was raised to $700 in 1903. A touring car was added in 1903, but by now, they were in financial trouble because of the large amount of money from previous lawsuits. It went into receivership that year.
1903 Spaulding Tonneau Automobile
1902 Spaulding Automobile Advertisement
1903 Greeley Runabout Automobile
E. N. Miller, machinist, Greeley, CO, built this 8 H. P. two-cylinder runabout, for a customer, W. L. Mlller, physician, also from Greeley. It had a two speed planetary transmission and wheel steering. In 1903. a heated argument soon erupted as to which Miller designed the car. Evidently, the machines won the argument, for he soon let people know the he would build cars for the at $1200. Since none were ordered, he turned his attention to his machine work.
1902 Moyea Automobile Advertisement
1902 Orient Automobile Advertisement
Ramus Hansen , owner of the Hansen Automobile CO, Cleveland, OH, built his model, named Cleveland, but sometimes referred to as the Hansen, in 1902. It had a single-cylinder engine. He later reorganized his company as the General. Manufacturing Company. The model now was named the General.
1903 General Runabout Automobile
The Cleveland model was now the General with a 8 H.P. engine. A tonneau with a two-cylinder, 16 H. P, was added. Prices were $900 for the runabout and $1000 for the tonneau. Production began in September with one car a day
1903 General Tonneau Automobile
The necessary money needed for expansion was not available because A. L. A. M. refused to license it and company stockholders feared the company would be sued for producing it. Even though the company was on solid footing, it had to declare bankruptcy in September, 1903.
`1903 General Automobile Advertisement
ConradThe Conrad Motor Carriage Company, Buffalo, NY, began business in 1901 by building light steam- driven, tiller-steered, chain-driven vehicles. In 1902, a two-cylinder gasoline models, one a runabout at $750 and a 1125 touring. However the death of the president, Schuyler A. Fisher, was devastating and the company was dissolved in late 1903
1901 Conrad Steam Delivery Van
1902 Conrad Automobile Advertisement
1903 Conrad Tonneau Automobile
.A new model, the Lackawanna, made the recently reorganized company as the Lakawanna Motor Co, was attempted to revive the company, but failed to do so. They started to make only engines
1904 Buick Automobile Advertisement
What a Great Advertisement for 1906 Solar Automobile Lamps!
1906 American Napier Automobile
Copied from the 1906 Motor World Magazine
AMERICAN NAPIER GOES UNDERBoston Creditors Force Involuntary BankruptcyCourt Appoints A ReceiverFailure Long Fore Shadowed Not that has been expected for six months.or more, came to pass on Thursday last, the failure of the Napier Motor Car Co. of America, whose plant is in the outskirts of Boston, Mass. The liabilities are about $140,000; the assets are problematical. Action was taken on the petition of Boston creditors, whose claims aggregated about $1,300, Judge Dodge in the United States District Court appointing Arthur J. Farnsworth is vice President. Farn5worth receiver, president of the bankrupt company was named the receiver.
The creditors who led the petition in involuntary bankruptcy are the Vacuum Oil Company, whose claim was for $25; Ezra B. W'hittier, $76; and \Villiam H. Wilkinson, $1,009. As the board of directors had admitted their inability to pay their debts, and their willingness to be adjudged bankrupt, the court of course promptly allowed the petition. Attorney Hugh Ogden, who represented the company, said that the receivership proceedings were brought about by reason of the company trying to do too much business on its limited capital. The company could not raise the necessary money to pay its debts. Its capital stock was recently increased to a large sum, but no market could be found for the pretty pieces of paper.
Despite its name and its
capital the Napier concern was never a serious factor in the American industry. Its plant
was operated in rather haphazard fashion, having been shut down several times, a strike
also interfering with its working. Its affairs have furnished food for gossip for many
months and its failure was so long and so clearly foreshadowed that the climax should
cause scarcely a ripple of surprise. The gossip has been of the sort that suggested that a
lifting of the entire lid may disclose some uncommonly interesting conditions.
1904 Eldredge Runabout Automobile
In 1903, The National Sewing Machine Company, Belvidere, IL, decided to go into the manufacturing of automobiles after its deal with Oscar Friedman fell through. It was named after the company's president, B. Eldredge, and it was a two-cylinder runabout that was sometimes called the National Road Car. Its tiller steering was on the left side, which was unusual at the time. After three years of producing 300 of its models, the company closed down..
1910 Kenmore Runabout Automobile
1910 Kenmore Automobile Advertisement
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