Additional Automobiles Pages
These two articles were copied from the 1896 Horseless Age Magazine " Letters from the Editor".
Dear Sir:Replying to your favor of the 17th, as to our opinion on the progress made in the new art of motor vehicles during the past year in the United States, we would say that so far as the public is concerned there apparently has been no progress made, as there is no more evidence at the present time of the introduction of motor vehicles than there was one year ago. But, on the other hand, during the past year there has been a great activity among the inventors and promoters of the new art in organizing companies for the introduction of motor vehicles and the anufacture and sale of same, which will undoubtedly show results of importance the coming year. We feel fully justified in saying, from what we have done and are now doing, that the enterprise has been fairly launched, and with a little patience and consideration on the part of the public for the shortcomings and defects incident to any new enterprise, and especially to such a revolutionary one as wehope this will be, that the great difficulties which we must expect to encounter before a complete commercial success will be obtained will disappear very rapidly when their introduction is made on a sufficient scale to give us the practical experience which apparently is all that is necessary to insure a complete triumph of the motor vehicle over horses. The names of the men behind the enterprise are alone sufficient to assure the public that no ordinary difficulties will be allowed to stand in the way of complete success. Yours very truly, by
Morris & Salom
With this month the first year of motor vehicle history in this country closes. True, previous to this period a number of experimental vehicles had been built, but they, in common with similar attempts since before the days of the locomotive, had proven failures, had attracted very little attention and had finally been
Motor vehicles are not yet in common use, but much has been accomplished. It has been proven that the most crowded city is traversable, and that deep frozen snow, although a hindrance, is not so serious a bar to the motor vehicle as to horses. That a vehicle built for and used on the common hilly roads of New England should be able to do better than 25 miles per hour on the track without a change of gear is truly wonderful.The gasolene engine is considered inelastic, but the ability to run more than 50 per cent, faster than an already high normal speed indicates a very creditable elasticity. Much experience has been gained. The work of several hundred inventors has not been wasted. It has helped to prepare the shops and mechanics of the land for the new industry. That we do not see their work is only because they have not yet caught up to the leaders, and so have nothing deserving public attention.
Charles E. Duryea.
When the United States Motor Car Company was disolved in 1912, only one name survived, Maxwell. Why was it chosen. Walter Flanders, the newly appointed president of the company, wrote the following letter explaining his decision for doing so.
The only teference to this automobile is listed, but not pictured, by BeverlyRae Kimes Catalogue of American Car is a touring car that could be converted for ambulance service. One of those was built and sold in 1908. No mention of the power motive.
Copied from the 1904 Automobile Magazine
Frank H. Merrill, Plainfield, NJ, has produced an air-cooled 2-cycle gas-engine in the pair of opposed cylinders form, which cools perfectly, is in very convenient form for wagon driving, costs but little, and appears to be in every way much better adapted to wagon driving on common roads than anything before shown. The motor is capable of high speed, has no vibration, is very accessible, has no valves and no water cooling, and gives one impulse to each crank-shaft turn, same with only one cylinder working as with both. This permits the use of full charge in one cylinder where half power will drive the car fast enough, which is believed better than burning a partial charge in each of two cylinders- to produce the same driving effect. This car will compel the closest study by all automobile designers, because it appears to be .a very decided advance towards the ultimate form of power driven vehicle for use on common roads, is less complicated than anything before shown, and is the first and only vehicle of its kind ever built, is satisfactory in its performance in every particular one, that of low speed on the high gear. None of the commercial carburetors are exactly suitable for the Merrill engines, but it is confidently expected that a new carburetor, Merrill's design, will meet its rquirements perfectly.
Merrill named his car veerac before he ried to raise capital. He tried raising capital for five years in several cities, including Springfield, MA, but was unable to do so. He finally was able to convince the Commercial Club of Anoka, MN to finance him but only as a commercial vehicle. A hundred was made in four years before going under.
The Detriot Vhicle Company, Detroit, MI, capitalized at $150,000, was organized in the summer of 1904 to manufacue their Crown model. The officers were F. H. Blackman, pfresident, H. H. Lind, secretary, and Hudson department stores' owner, J. L. Hudson as vice-president. This model was not a very successful seller, so a new 1906 model was designed by Edward Ross, former supertendent for Cadillac. His reputation was such that all of his 1907 models were sold immediately to John North Willys. The original company was the Detroit Novelty Company and the stock holders wanted nothing yo do with automobiles. A litifation against the company nd the company declared bankruptct in 1907.
1903 Murray Automobile
Willis Murray a former traveling salesman for the Arc Welding Company and managr of the Olds automobile department, left the company afterits disastrous fire in 1901. Anxious to build a car of his own, he convinced the Church Mfg. CO., Adrian, MI to build a car of his design. The company were manufacturers of several differet items and hired Murray as their engineer. His design was a copy of the 1899 Oldsmobile.The car was a success and the Church company devoted their time and money produciny the Murray at $600 which was a very good buy. The company borrowed heavily to manufacture it.in quantities, which was a mistake and the automobile department was tmporarily.in 1902, but soon re opened as the Murray-Church modeland was limping along. The company started making wire fences and later announced that he was still making carss and was trying to finance. In 1903, his new car was the Lenawee
1903 Lenawee Rear Entrance Tonneau Automobile
The Lenawee was a successor to the Muray automobile, built by the Church Mfg. CO in 1904, and was designed by Walter Bachle, a gasoline engine builder from Detroit. Fifteen were built before the company decided that it was not a good seller and in in 1905 a new model came out as the Wilcox-Bachle
The Wilcox-Bachle was the third automobile built by the Church Mfg. Co., in Adria, MI. The first was the 1902 Murray and the second one was the 1903 Lewanee. The company was not on sound footing and wanted to revive its automobile manufacturing.
Copied from the 1905 Automobile Magazine
This large high-power car was first placed on the road about April 15, 1905, and has now been driven about 3000 miles. and may be said to have been thoroughly tried out in all descriptions of road work. It is believed to be the largest and heaviest car to date driven by a 2~cycle motor. and is here first illustrated and described. The great range of
According to Beverly Rae Kimes' Catalogue of American Cars, only the prototype was built.
Thomas E. Waltrous, Elmira, NY, owner of the Watrous Automobile Co., produced his automobile in 1905 and the incredible low price seemed a bargain. However, it was seen as anything but. Its reputation was a waterless, gearless, powerless, and useless automobile. It did not last to the end of the year.
The Simplicites Auto Co.. Hubbard St., Middletown, Conn., are now on the American market with a gasoline car of English-French style. They have been making these ears exclusively for shipment to England, but are now in a position to fill American orders. Only one Simplicities automobile was ever built. The automobile was built by . H. Kitto, an English car dealer first showed his "American" car in 1903 at the Crystal palace Show in London. In 1904, he returned to te this counter and settled in Middletown, CT. He formed his Simplicities Automobile Company and had had one car buildt.. Then he went about bowworowing several thousand dollars from Warwick Cycle and Automobile Company and he sold a good deal of stock. Thene he closed his company down and traveled to several other cities pulling the same scheme.using his automobile with different names. In 1911, in Ohio, he was sued for his debts. The result was he closed his shop.
The manufacturers who give attention to small details which add to the comfort of automobilists, are usually repaid for their
Provision should also be made under the body for the storing of gallon cans of oil and gasoline, which should always be carried for emergency cases. Up to date, there has been little provision made for a small extra supply of fuel and oil; but many an automobilist has been stranded on some lonely country road for the want of a. little essence or lubricant.
The reason these little things are not more carefully considered, is because the manufacturer feels that the larger ones need his first consideration; but now that the automobile is being perfected in all details there is no reason why special attention
Charles W. Walker organized his Walter Motor Car CO. Detroit, MI, in 1905 with a capital stock of $3000,000 and himself as the president. His runabout was shaft driven, 78 wheel base, two speed planetary transmission, and two cylinder engine. Its top speed was 25 MPH. It sold for $550. Its motto was The Walker car is the Candy He immediately ran into financial troubles and his debtors came and took the candy and everything else before the end of the year.
1904 Hammer-Sommer Tonneau Automobile
The Hammer-Sommers Auto Carriage Company, Detroit, MI, began building their Hammer-Sommer models in 1904. They were of the ordinary models of that period, but well built.The 61/2 horse-power runabouts were in several styles.Bickering began between the parners and thay decided to part ways with each one building cars under their names. The mosdels were much the same as the Hammer-Sommer models. In late 1905, the Hammer models were discontinued.
1905 Hammer Automobile Advertisement
At the same time, the Sommer Motor Car Company was also struggling and closed down that year.. However, L. A Sommer, one of brothers, later became involved with the Allen Brothers of Fostoria, OH, in 1913, to build the Allen models.
1906 Stanley Steamer Racer
1906 Oldsmobile Two-Cycle Touring
1906 Oldsmobile Line Includes a Two-cycle Car and a Four Cylinder Palace Touring Car Olds Motor Works have The three new cars in their 1906 line. The most radically new one is a two-cycle, two-cylinder touring car. The two-cycle is known as model L. The motor is of the two-cylinder, two stroke cycle, vertical type. The cylinders are 5-inch bore x 5-inch stroke, and develop from 20 to 24 horsepower under proper condition. The cranks are set 180 degrees and counter-weighted, thereby reducing the vibration toa minimum.
The Chicago Steam Automobile was made in Chicago, IL, by the Chicago Automobile, Manufacturing Company from 1905-1907. Its one model was a five-passenger touring. The company was not very sucessful and in 1906, it was announced that they were moving to Connersville, IN, which never happened and it went out of business in 1907.
The Matthews Motor Company was organized in 1906 in Camden, NJ, and bought the former Jones-Corbin Automobile, Philadelphia, PA, in 1907. It had four cylinder, 40 horse power engine on a 120 inch wheel base. The Touring model could seat eight people. Its motto "A Car that Lasts" did not prove true,because by 1907, it was out of business..
The inventor and patentee of this single gear engagement speed change and a reverse drive secured a degree of M. E. at the Illinois University, after leaving which he built up the prosperous business of E. M. Burr & Co., founders and machinists. His car was built to demonstrate the value of the Burr change speed gear. It has a wheel base of 100 inches with a gauge 5- inch. The tires are 32x4. inches.
1907 Craig-Toledo Automobile
Frank W. Blair Blair, previously employed by several different automobile companies, convinced the Craig Family, a ship building company of Toledo, to finance the best three-passenger, of his own design, ever built. George L.and F. Craig agreed and the prototype was in early 1906. It was named the Maumee. It could easily do 65 MPH and had a road test of 18,000 miles without trouble. In January of 1907, the Craig-Toledo Motor Company was formed and plans for 100 roadsters at $4,000 each was planned. By June, the b company went into involuntary receivership. There were eight cars on hand and the recekiver was awarded them
1907 New York Automobile Show
The CraigToledo Motor Company, Toledo, Ohio, U. S. A., capital stock $100,000. J. Frank Zahm, President; George L Craig, Vice-President; William K. Terry, Secretary and A. W. Coulter, Treasurer, began work on motor cars in December, 1905, and had its ?rst car, a 3-seat Roadster, 45 H. P. at I250 R. P. M., on the road March 1,1906.
B. L. M.
The B. L. M was manufactured by the Breese, Lawrence, and Moulton Motor Car Company, Brooklyn, NY in 1906 by thre young men wait an idea of extraordniary motor cars. Their first one was a 85-horse power race car put together in 1905 with a price tage of $12,000. Soon realizing that this model had no market. In 1907, to build automobiles for everyday business men. The model was the "Pirate". It was soon called a sports car, but this was not what they wanted.
Copied from the 1907 Horseless Age Magazine
The B-L-M Motor Company, of Brooklyn, N. Y., have placed on the market a unique type of car, known as the "Pirate Runabout." This is a light machine, weighing complete but 1,400 pounds, and provided with two racing type of seats slightly forward of the rear axle. It carries a four cylinder, vertical engine of 4 5-16 inch bore by 4l/i inch stroke, which is rated at 24 horse power at 1,200 r. p. m. The car has a 98 inch wheel base and 52 inch tread. The steering post is placed at considerable angle, as the seats and the entire mechanism are placed very Iow,ęgiving a low centre of gravity. The floor boards are also at a large angle, and the pedals protrude but slightly above them. This mach'ne is intended as a sort of fancy runabout, and although very light in construction the axles, steering gear, etc., are of ample size, the weight reduction being in the form of many of the parts, combined with the fact that nickel-chrome steel is used freely throughout the construction. Furthermore, the weight of the body is practicallv negligible, as it contains nothing but two seat backs. At 1,300 r. p. m. of the engine the gear ratio gives 55 miles per hour, and other bevel gears can be had giving higher speeds if desired. Price $3500.
1907 B. L. M. Landaulet Automobile
The average touring cars were too slow and too heavy, so they came out with their Laundaulet. Plans for 250 of this model were planned for the year, but their marketing of the car was wrong and by rhe end of the year, they went into receivership.
1911 Gaylord Utility Automobile
The Gaylord Automobile was manufactured bt he Gaylord Motor Car Company, Gaylod, MI. Its original model was a four-passenger touring car that could easily be converted to for other uses. It was adverised as the pioneer of utility cars, but others had been built many years sooner.Its 1911 production was around 350 units.The company decided in 1912 to expand to three models on the same wheel base. This was a bad decision for the companywent out of business that year.
ELECTRIC VEHICLE COMPANY (GASOLINE CARS).
This company displays one of the most varied assortments of motor vehicles shown by any single concern, including gasoline, electric and a combination gasoline and electric machine. In Beverly Rae Kimes History of the American Cars, she states that this hybid , 1907-1908, was referred to as the Magnetic model..
SURPRISING COLUMBIA COMING
Electric Vehicle Co. is Making Ready to Launch a Gasolene-Electric Car.
Of the new vehicles that are in prospect, it is fairly safe to say that none will create a greater sensation when uncovered than the Columbia gasolene-electric car which soon will be formally announced by the Electric Vehicle Co., Hartford, Conn. While combinations of the gasolene and electric systems have been exploited during previous years, their sponsors were not closely or conspicuously identified with the industry and they made no marked impress or advance. The fact, that the Electric Vehicle Co., one of the large and long established leaders, now has applied the combination to a pleasure car, which it is about ready to offer to the public, is as significant as it is surprising. Nothing of the sort was suspected, for never was a secret better kept. The Electric Vehicle Co. has had the car under test for some 18 months but not a word regarding it leaked out. They have profited by the experience and mistakes of others and made sure they are right before going ahead, and that com' ing from such a responsible source, the car that affords all the advantages of the two powers, will command immediate, widespread and serious attention, seems beyond doubting.
The vehicle is one of a type the possbilities of which have received attention ever since the shortcomings of the mechanical methods of transmitting the power made themselves manifest. In place of the usual flywheel at the rear end of the motor the crank shaft caries the armature of a multipolar, direct current generator, which in its entirety does not occupy much more space than the flywheel it displaces. Directly behind the dynamo and in line with it although there is no mechanical connection between the two lies an electric motor placed longitudinallythat is, lying parallel. However, with the sides of the car as is usually the case with shaft driven electric cars having but a single motor. As a continuation of its armature shaft the motor carries a propeller shaft terminating in the usual bevel gear, live axle drive, though as will readily be apparent the principle is equally applicable to a side chain drive.
The motor is specially wound in order to permit of as large a range of speeds as possible with the insertion of the minimum amount of external resistance in the circuit to effect the speed changes. These are operated by means of a controller similar to those generally employed on electric cars and the changes are effected by a side lever which tends to give the car a somewhat similar appearance to the regular gasolene type. Five forward speeds and three reverse speeds are provided. Of the forward speeds four may be termed electrical, that is, they are obtained by altering the relation of the generator to the motor by means of the controller, while the fifth is mechanical. This last is the direct drive in which the power of the engine is transmitted directly to the rear wheels, the electrical equipment then running idle. Apart from the fact that its transmission is electrical insteal of mechanical and that on all except the direct drive the engine merely revolves the armature of the dynamo, the energy from which is reconverted to mechanical power in the electric motor, the car does not differ in other respects from the regulation gasolene type. the power plant being one of the standard four cylinder Columbia motors.
Although the first chassis of the kind built by the Electric Vehicle Co. has been designed with its use as a pleasure car in view, the fact that the system is one that lends itself most readily to the needs of the commercial vehicle has not been overlooked. Though it combines both mechanical and electrical power it is withal simpler and consequently safer to place in the hands of the average driver of a truck than the purely mechanical type. Less skill will be required to handle such a car where starting and speed changing are concerned as there is less possibility of doing damage in the operation. For the first speed the motor windings are thrown in series with the generator as in this manner the greatest possible starting torque may be exerted and as the windings are calculated to with stand an excessive overload for short periods there should be no difficulty in pulling such a car out of the worst kind of a hole even though heavily loaded. The price of the chassis complete has been placed at $7,500 and the new vehicle will in all probability be staged at the coming shows.
In 1905, Edward Hewitt, owner of the Hewitt Motor Company, NYC, NY, bought the Selden patent license rights from the defunct Standard Motor Construction Company. He started production in 1906 with a one-cylinder town car, limousine, and a two-passenger touring car.He also had a four cylinder touring car and a limousine. He began exporting his automobiles to the Adams Manufacturing Company in London, England and they were sold as the Adams-Hewitt models. He made claim that his 1907 eght-cylinder car was the first one, but he may have over looked the fact that the Buffum automobile had preceeded his.His eight-cylinder had a 50-60 horse power motor with a two speed transmission and110-inch wheel base. He was also heavily involved in commercial vechiles. His automobile production was absorbed by the Metzer Motor Car Company in 190, but he kept manufacturing commercial until 1912 when he joined with Mack and became the engineer.
Price $4500, with Limousine body.
1900 Turner Tonneau Automobile
Richard Turner, Marysville, OH, owner of the Marysville Foundry and Machine, that manufactured ornamental iron work for a good number business in the local area. He built iron chairs for the school district, furniture and toys. He also built and patented a gasoline engine, and in 1900, he built an automobile for himself. He drove the car for many years, but never produced it. He died in 1936 and his family later donated it to theUnion County Historical Society.
1902 Turner Liliputian Three Wheel Automobile
George Turners , owner of the Turner Automobile Company, Philadelphia, PA, produced his first automobile in 1902. It was a three-wheel vehicle set on a peculiar tubular frame with a tiller to the front wheel. Its wheel base was 51 inches, and its 11/4 horse power engine was located under the seat. It had only one speed both forward and reverse. It was exceedingly slow and was not a popular vehicle. He did follow with his 1903 Gadabout. That car also had poor to none sales. Bankruptcy soon followed in 1904.
G. G. Foster, owner of the Foster $ Company, piano makers since 1896, decided to make steam automobiles in 1899. In 1900, its epermiental model was completed and the company was reorganized as the Foster Automobile Copany, capitalized at $100,000. Imediately, Paul bought the company and reorganized it as the Foster Automobile Manufacturing Company. The original stock holders, except Foster, left the company. Both steam and electric cars were made with 165 being produced
1901 Foster Steam Automobile
1902 Foster Steam Automobile
1902 Foster Automobile Advertsement
In 1903, steam cars were abandend in favor of the gasoline models. Whitney Steam Motor Wagon Company had brought a law suit against the company for infrignment of patents. In the summer of that years the company went bankrupt and Densmore had disappeared owing $40,000 to the banks. In 1904 Rogers tried againwith another steamer, but the company was bought by the Artzberger Automobile Companyof Allegheny, PA.
1903 Foster-Artzberger Surrey
1904 Artzberger Automobile with Artzberger Standing by his Machine
The Foster steam six horse power wagon, bu i 1 t by the Artzberger Automobile Company, 721 Cedar avenue, Allegheny, Pa., is an improvement on the orig i n a 1 well known Foster vehicle. Mr. W. H. Artzberger gave several notable demonstrations of its ability during the past season, notable among which was the one-mile straignt away record of one mile in 1 min. 10 sec, which was remarkable for an ordinary roadster, carrying the same weight and with the same size of boiler and engine. This wagon is simple in con struction. It is supplied with every modern eonvenlence, r equiring no pump i n g of air, no pumping of water, no lubricators to fill, and no oiling to do. It will get up steam in five minutes, and can be left standing with safety for hours without attention, and is ready to start by pushing a lever. Since taking charge of the building of the Foster wagons, the Artzberger people have made many improvements, especially in their new platform spring wagon. This construction, together with extra long wheel base of 75 inches, causes it to ride exceedingly easy. They use the Reachlers running-gear and platform springs, which low-er the center of gravity to the lowest possible point. All the wagons are fitted with a double action brake, together with an. air brake which fills the air tank while running down a hill. They carry two or four occupants and the front seat is arranged to close neatly when not in use, making it a most desirable car for two passengers, at which time the existence of an extra seat can not be noticed
W. H. Artzberger won the 100-mile run from Rochester to Buffalo, making only two stops for water, and winning the silver trophy. There were 4 2 entries in the contest, and despite the rain 32 showed up and ran. The Improved Foster, driven by W. H. Artzberger was another case of "Appearances don't count." It weighed 1,285 pounds, and had the smallest engine and boiler in the race. W. H. Artzberger made the fastest time of any regular road machine in the race, and beat many racers. In the hill climbing contest by the Automobile Club, of Pittsburg. Saturday, June 20, 1903, held in Highland Park, PittFburer. and up the steep grade known as "Serpentine Drive," the Foster steam wagon won from all steam automobiles and all %vm motors, excepting one 32-horsepower racer, winning the silver cup and first price. In the race were 92 entries.
In the straight way race, of one mile, all up grade, in Highland Park, Pittsburg, July 11, 1903, the Poster steam wagon demonstrated its superiority by defeating all competitors, of every class, making the mile run, all up hill, at 1:42, 1:41 and 1:33 respectively, the last being the fastest up-hill mile on record by a 6-horsepowerAutomobile One of the most peculiar features in this run was the fact that the Foster steam wagon in this race weighed 1,285 pounds, and was fitted with a 14-inch boiler, yet it won against 20-horsepower machines, with 24-ln. boilers.
The large illustration shows Mr. W. H.Artzberger standing beside the wagon with which he won these different events.
However, the stigma of the previous Foster endeavors stayed with the Artzberger and it closed down before the end of 1904
1901 Riker Gasoline Tonneau Automobile
Shortly After this car was produced, Riker sold his company and joined the Locomobile company in designing their gasoline automobiles.
1908 Jeannin Runabout Automobile
In Early January, 1908, the Jeannin Automobile and Manufacturing Company, St. Louis, Mo., was incorporated, and commenced to manufacture a two-cylinder motor of the double-opposed type with offset cylinders, especially designed for use in the buggy type of automobiles , The officers were E. P. Fritschle as president; H. W. Jeannin, superintendant, and W. Goener, secretary.
1908 Jeannin Light Delivery Automobile
Later a light delivery buggy was added to its line. Jeannin claimed that no mechanical parts would go wrong. There wasnt much difference in it than all of the other bugies at the time. The fad for high wheel buggies ended in 1909 and so did the Jeannin.
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