History of Early American Automobile Industry

Chapter 22


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Addendum 1    Addendum 2   Addendum 3

Articles copied from the January, 1914 of the Motor Age Magazine

Growth of the Industry as Evidenced by New Vehicles UNCLE SAM'S most precocious industrial child, the motor car industry, is a wonderfully developed youngster and starts the new year with confidence, optimism and determination. Onceand that was not long agoranked as a Gulliver among the Brobdingnagians of manufacture and trade, the motor car industry has grown so fast and so healthy that recently the national nurses at Washington knocked down the tariff wall and sent the gasoline-dieted infant to meet foreign competition on the highways of commerce. Statistics for 1913 are an indication of the marvelous growth of this industry which was undreamed of less than a score of years ago. It is estimated that the number of cars and trucks produced during the past year attained the surprising total of 450,000. The bulk of this output was gasoline pleasure cars, the number of which is roughly computed at 410,000. The production for the entire year of 1912 was 378,261 motor vehicles, comprising 340,746 gasoline pleasure cars, 27,909 gasoline commercial vehicles, 8,813 passenger electrics, 743 electric trucks and 850 steam-propelled conveyances.

American manufacturers for 1914 are not building nearly as many different models of cars as they did last year. Two or three years ago a concern
would have three or four different sizes of chassis, with perhaps a dozen different bodies fitted upon them, but now at least half of the manufacturers are producing but a single model. In this single-model program it is possible to produce cars much more rapidly.

Another, and nearly as potent a reason for the smaller number of cars for selection is that there are fewer concerns manufacturing cars this year. At the beginning of 1913 there were 156 manufacturers of passenger cars, whereas this year's field can boast but 133. A survey of the industry will show that there has disappeared from the ranks of cars on the market a number whose names have become familiar to the buying public but which, for one reason or another, are not among those produced for 1914. There has been one feature of the 1914 cars which is the bright and shining light in the way of radical changes, just as the adoption of engine starters was the outstanding feature of the 1913 season. This new star is the automatic gearshift and is dependent upon and comes as a sequel to the almost universal adoption of engine cranking arrangements. Although automatic gearshifting is comparatively insignificant insofar as the number of cars adopting it is concerned, there being only four or five which fit this feature as stock equipment, nevertheless it is such a radical change from conventional efforts, and yet such a logical one, that it is worthy of particular attention.


"Letting George Do It"

The announcement of automatic gear-shifting arrangements is a logical development of that demand for ease of operation which found its first expression in
the production of electric lights, power tire pumps and curtains which could be attached and detached without operator or passenger leaving their seats. This luxury instinct was fostered by the general introduction of methods whereby energy, stored by the motor could be used to make it do its own cranking. These engine-cranking systems, the tire-inflating provisions, and the press-the-button lighting systems have led to a further demand for arrangements which will let "George do the work" George in this case being the motor. Adoption of automatic cranking systems has made automatic gearshifting possible. Our luxury-loving motorists fail to see why the engine could not be made to shift gears as well as crank itself, light the car, pump the tires, in addition to the performance of its natural function of transporting its owner. Automatic gearshifting depends on the utilization of the energy, whether in the form of electricity or air, stored up for electric cranking and lighting in the one case, or pneumatic starting and tire inflation in the other.

Another evidence of the maker's answer to this call for easy motoring is the adoption on so many cars of the so-called one-man top. This is comparatively a recent development but approximately 10 per cent of the manufacturers, particularly of the higher-priced cars are equipping touring cars with tops which can be raised or lowered by one man and that without getting out of the car.

The Electric Transmission

In these are days of transition, days when you must ask each morning what has transpired since sunset, what new victories have been won, what new campaigns organized. The present show has brought forth the electric transmission, a unit which in addition to taking the place of the flywheel clutch and
the gearbox for changing speeds, also does away with the electric starter and the generator for electric lights. The electric transmission in its present form is revolutionary, partly because of the part it plays in the chassis and further in that it has been tested out over tens of thousands of miles and has measured up to the fondest anticipations of its owners. With it the driver has a noiseless drive on all intermediate speeds as well as on high and has his control centered in a small lever on the steering wheel, a lever little larger than that controlling the spark or throttle. With this small lever you crank your engine, and get all of your forward speed changes. The electric transmission is not new, it is much older than the six-cylinder motor and older than the four-cylinder one. In principle it is practically the same as the electric dynamometer which is used in our best laboratories. From a weight point of view it is on a par with present constructions which include clutch, gearbox, starter and electric generator; and viewed from the great determining point of price, even today in its early stages, it is but very little more costly. Its possibilities are unlimited, it gives to the gasoline car all the merits of the electric, with the advantage that the battery has not to be carried, any more than the small starting and lighting battery on any gasoline machine. Its possibilities are unlimited and it would seem that the entering edge of the wedge of a revolutionizing force in motor car construction has been entered


The year 1913 will go down in history as marking the inception of the cyclecar movement in America, irrespective of whatever status it attains during the years to come. The past year has witnessed amazing activity with many makers in this new type of light-weight, low-upkeep-cost, and speedy vehicle, and throughout the country there has been widespread interest in itan interest often due to the general feeling with many owners of light cars that cost of upkeep should be reduced wherever and whenever possible. It is an accepted fact that more economical small cars, or cyclecarscall them what you willare needed, a car that will not be a white elephant in the family, but which will take its proper perspective along with the other household investments

The country at large is not yet sold to the cyclecar movement, although hundreds and thousands accept the fact that the little cars will perform wonders. There is still a wavering, a hesitation, a waiting for a little more light, something that will at least determine along which route the new baby of last year is going to travel.

As yet, the public does not know what it does or does not want, and the makers of these different types of vehicles are also uncertain. The solution of the problem will be the performances of the little vehicles in the hands of the owners, and those who are puzzling over the solution of the question will have to wait until July or a little later, when owners in different states in the union will have had an opportunity of demonstrating what these new types of vehicles are capable of doing. To attempt to solve the problem today is useless. The inventors of both types are enthusiastic, and properly so, but what the verdict of the fastidious American public will be remains a matter of time until experience shows them the way.

Introduced in 1914 was the The Metal Specialties Manufacturing Co.. of Chicago, makers of the Presto Cigar Lighters, which were made with various different lighter tips adaptable to electric systems of different voltages. One of these tips was especially designed for operation from the Ford generator, so as to make it available on a Ford which was not equipped with a battery.

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The lighters were designed in the shape of a watch and were supplied with ten feet of silk covered cord and a nickel plated clip holder which could be attached to any part of the car. The case of the lighter was of wood, with polished ebony finish, and all the metal parts were insulated.

Also new for 1914 was the Stevens-Duryea one-man top stored behind rear seat with no detection of it.

The Scripps-Booth electric push button door lock and opener with no oor handles.

The Lincoln Highway automobile's folding front passenger seat, letting the rear passengers to get into the rear seat. By doing this, there was no need for a rear door.

Exports to Europe was stopped for fear of breaking America's neutrality in the war in Europe. South American and the Pacific Islands were being explored for possible outlets.


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Dodge Brothers Logo

Since 1912, when the Dodge Brothers started making plans for a car of their own make, the  industry had been waiting for the day when it would be shown.

Copied from the July 1914, Issue of Motor Age Magazine


Dodge Bros, will put about 10,000 men to work beginning October, when the million-dollar additions to the plant will be completed. These consist of four-story assembly room, 1,000 feet long, 70 wide and a press-punching building. Three hundred thousand dollars worth of machinery will be installed. The total floor space will be 20 acres and will make it one of the largest factories in the country. As yet no details of the new car have been announced. The company states that no announcement as to price, etc., will be made until delivery can be made to dealers.

The car arrived in the summer of 1914 as an expermental model. The first production model began in November.

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This image and  advertisement were copied from book , Dodge Brothers, the Men, the Automobiles, and the Legacy by Charles Hyde, 2005

John and Horace Dodge, machinests by trade, set up a small shop in Detroit, MI at the turn of the century and began to manufacture engines and transmissions for the Olds Motor Works. When  Henry Ford began his third try at making automobiles in 1903, The brothers decided to throw in their lot with him. The knew of his failures, but they believed in him and liked him and being born risk takers was another factor. They were given $10,000 in stock up front for supplying the complete chassis. Later on, they also made bodies for the Ford. This continued through 1912. From day one, Ford's policy was that no investor, including himself, would receive any dividends because the money would help build the company. In 1913, they decided to go on their own and build a car named for themselves, Dodge Brothers.

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1914 Dodge Touring
Copied from a 1914 family magzine and does not appear in another publication

It was now time to cash out with the Ford company and use the money for manufacturing their car. They cashed in a portion of their shares for $5 million. This did not set well with Ford and his management team for a competetor was using this money to challenge their company. The first Dodge Brothers automobile appeared in November, 1914. November 12, 1914

November 12, 1914
Dodge Bros.' Car, a Four-Cylinder, To Be Sold at $785

After the public has indulged in several months of speculation as to the details of the car which Dodge Bros., of Detroit, would produce, the long-expected finally has happened and the complete specifications of the car, which is to sell at $785, have been announced from headquarters in Detroit. Only a five-passenger touring model is supplied, this being a streamline type mounted on a chassis of 110-inch wheelbase. The motor is a block-cast design rating at 30 to 35 horsepower. The three-speed gearset in unit with the motor is unusual in one respectthat the countershaft is prevented from rotating when the drive is direct, a factor for reducing noise and wear in the gearset. Other mechanical features include one cone clutch, North-East starting and lighting, tubular propeller shaft mounted in a torsion tube, floating rear axle, pressure gasoline feed from rear tank, left drive,
center control, frame overhung on semi-elliptic front and three-quarter elliptic rear springs and wood wheels carrying
32 by 31/2 inch tires.

It was the first mass production of an all steel body car built in the country. They never rushed to do things and were slow to change for they believed that their car was made right. The only things that were changed in the next ten years was the extension of the chassis. 45,000 were produced in 1914, making it the largest selling car in the history for its first year of production and in 1916 they gained fourth place in sales. It was considered the most dependable car in the country.

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1914 Dodge Brothers' Phample Cover

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1914 Dodge Brothers' Automobile Advertisement


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1915 Dodge Automobile

Motor Age Magazine Detroit, Mich., Sept. 4

For the winter trade Dodge Bros. is now beginning to supply its distributors and dealers with the first of the new winter cars. As far as the chassis, motor and other constructional features are concerned, there is no change from the current Dodge model. The novelty consists in a demountable top which is furnished in addition to the regular roadster or touring body. This top is attached to the car's body and does not disturb in any way the windshield. It can be entirely removed in summer and the ordinary mohair top, which is furnished as a part of the regular equipment with the winter car, substituted. A semi-open car can be made out of the winter car by removing the window glasses, side panels, front posts, etc. Either with a roadster or touring body the winter Dodge car will be sold at $950.

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1915 Dodge Automobile Advertisement

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1916 Dodge Automobile Advertisement

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1919 Dodge Closed Body Sedan

1919 Dodge Ad

1919 Dodge Automobile Advertisement

In 1919, a steel sedan model was added to their lineup with a first price tag of $1900. In 1920, Dodge Brothers automobiles reached second place in sales. It was also the year that both brothers died. John died first in January and his death was devasting to Horace who died in December. They had been inseparable from childhood and as close as any brothers could get.

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1926 Dodge Sedan

Their widows were now in charge. They installed Frederick Haynes, a long time company executive, as president in January, 1921. The company fell to third place in sales and Haynes position was not secured, but he did stay in charge until 1925 while it sales dropped to fifth place. The widows decided to sell the company to Dillon, Read, and Company, a New York banking house, for $146,000,000, the largest price ever paid for any company up to that time. E.G. Wilmer, a financial man with no automotive experience, was named president. The sales kept falling.

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1927 Dodge Fast Four

In 1927, a Fast Four was offered with a 40-hp motor on a 108 inch wheel base and the 1928 model was a 60-hp that was designed by Dodge but Continental built it. Also that year, they sold the company to Walter Chrysler for $170,000,000. His Chrysler car was an immensely popular in the medium price field, but he needed the Dodge with its facilities to enter into the lower price range. By this time the Dodge was 13th in sales. The former executives were immediately fired and his crew took over. In 1930, it simply became a Dodge car.

These four marques became the Chrysler Corporation.

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1929 Desoto Automobile


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1928 Plymouth Automobile


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1929 Chrysler Automobile

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1929 Dodge Automobile

The Chrysler Corporation was now capable of competing with the Ford and General Motors for its share in the market place.

A liitle inguinity is helpful
Articles submitted by readers in the February, 1914 Motor Age Magazine

Garage Doors Open From Driver's Seat

The pull of a handle does the work of a time and labor saving device for opening garage doors without getting out of the car. Two pieces of board, the length depending on the width of the garage doors, are nailed to the sides of the garage, two pulleys are wired on the ends of these sticks and two window weights are fastened to window cord, the other ends being fastened to the doors. Two spring bolts are fastened onto the inside of the door, one at the top and the other at the bottom. These are connected up with a piece of wire so that they will work in unison and the wire is run through a holebored through the door and out in front of the garage about 10 or 15 feet to a handle. This is placed so that it can be reached easily from the machine, without moving from the driver's seat. A slight pull on the wire and the spring bolts are released and the doors open wide enough for one to drive in. These weights hold the doors open even in a strong wind. This has been in actual use for over a
year and has worked very successfully. R. S. Robinson.


Utilizes Warm Air Around the Motor for Making Driving Comfortable

Bellaire, O.Editor Motor AgeI noticed in Motor Age some weeks ago, a heater suggested by a reader. I have a very plain one which I think can be described to you so that you will understand it thoroughly and help others. Remove the front foot boards and in place of them use slats strong enough to hold a person. These slats should be placed far enough apart to allow the warm air off of the motor to come up. If there is a dust pan on the car it is very easy to get the warm air into the front. Take a large piece of pasteboard commonly used in making heavy paper boxes, then cut out the center for the shaft to go through. Tack or nail the top of the cardboard to the bottom of the car just beneath the slats, but in back so that the air may come up. Make the cardboard a little long so as not to hang straight down, but to slant towards the front and to rest on the dust pan.E. J. Heil.


The brothers, E. W. and W. O. Allen, produced their automobile in 1913 at their Allen Motor Car Company, Fostoria, OH. L. A. Sommer designed and built the four cylinder, 40 horsepower,  L-head engine at his Bucyrus, OH factory. The car was assembled with some of the top named brands and proved to be very successful. Both roadster and touring models were priced at $1395 that included all acessories.

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1916 Allen Roadster

Very few changes were made through the years and in 1918, they were completely involved in the war effort. After the war, they continued to make their cars, but with vivid colors that could be ordered.  Like all of the rest of the companies that let the government used their facilities, they were not paid until 1922. By that time, the company was bankrupt and disolved.

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1914 Allen Automobile Advertisement

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1919 Allen Touring Series 43 Automobile

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1919 Allen Automobile Advertisement

Woods Electric

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1914 Woods Electric Runabout Automobile

This is proof that Briscoe's 1914 model was not the only one-eyed car



The Benham was made by the Benham Mfg, Co, in Detroit, and was an assembled car with some of the best parts available and came with three body styles.

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1914 Benham Touring Automobile

The motor was a Continental and it had four-speed gearset and disk clutch. a 130 inch chassis was used for the three body styles; a roadster and a five-passenger touring priced at $2,485 and a seven-passenger touring at $2,53. These prices include an electrical starting and lighing system, a one-man top, Warner Autometer, two thermos bottles and a cigar lighter. Wooden or wire wheels could be had. The weight was 3,600 pounds.

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1914 Benham Automobile Advertisement
The Benham ceased operation before the years end.

Doble Steamer

There were four Doble brothers: Abner, William, John and Warren. The father patented the Doble Pelton wheel in California and made money. All were at one time associated with the automobile company, with Abner, John and Warren as the leading lights. Abner built his first steam car between 1906 and 1909 while still in high school, with the assistance of his brothers. It was based on components salvaged from a wrecked White Motor Company steamer, driving a new engine of the Doble brothers' own design. It did not run particularly well, but it inspired the brothers to build two more prototypes in the following years. Abner moved to Massachusetts in 1910 to attend MIT, but dropped out after just one semester to work with his brothers on their steam cars.

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1914 Doble Roadster Automobile

As a result of nine years' experimenting, Abner Doble, of Waltham, MA., had developed his steam automobile which he claimed that did away the limited mileage of driving due tio the frequent stops for water.

Their third prototype, the Model B, led Abner to file patents for the innovations incorporated in it which included a steam condenser which enabled the water supply to last for as much as 1,500 miles, instead of the typical steam car's 20 - 50 miles. The Model B also protected the interior of the boiler from the common steam vehicle nuisances of corrosion and scale by mixing engine oil with feedwater.

While the Model B did not possess the convenience of an internal combustion engined vehicle, it attracted the attention of contemporary automobile trade magazines with the improvements it displayed over previous steam cars. Apart from its slow starting time, the Model B was virtually silent compared to contemporary gasoline engines. It also possessed no clutch or transmission, which were superfluous due to the substantial torque produced by steam engines from 0 rpm. Most noticeably, the Model B could accelerate from 0 - 60 mph in just 15 seconds, whereas a Model T For of the period took 40 seconds to reach its top speed of 40 - 50 mph.. 

The Doble was driven 1800 miles using 20 gallons of water. One person claimed that he had driven his Doble over 200,000 miles with no mechanical problems and had used only three sets of tires.

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1925 Doble Series E Automobile

Over the next 16 years of its existence, the factory produced a limited number each year. This was due to constant tinkering with each model, frequent moving of the factory, an a price tag of $11,000. The production stopped in 1931.

There were four Doble brothers: Abner, William, John and Warren. The father patented the Doble Pelton wheel in California and made money. All were at one time associated with the automobile company, with Abner, John and Warren as the leading lights. Abner built his first steam car between 1906 and 1909 while still in high school, with the assistance of his brothers. It was based on components salvaged from a wrecked White Motor Company steamer, driving a new engine of the Doble brothers' own design. It did not run particularly well, but it inspired the brothers to build two more prototypes in the following years. Abner moved to Massachusetts in 1910 to attend MIT, but dropped out after just one semester to work with his brothers on their steam cars.

Their third prototype, the Model B, led Abner to file patents for the innovations incorporated in it which included a steam condenser which enabled the water supply to last for as much as 1,500 miles, instead of the typical steam car's 20 - 50 miles. The Model B also protected the interior of the boiler from the common steam vehicle nuisances of corrosion and scale by mixing engine oil with feedwater.

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1918 Doble Steam Automobile Advertisement

While the Model B did not possess the convenience of an internal combustion engined vehicle, it attracted the attention of contemporary automobile trade magazines with the improvements it displayed over previous steam cars. Apart from its slow starting time, the Model B was virtually silent compared to contemporary gasoline engines. It also possessed no clutch or transmission, which were superfluous due to the substantial torque produced by steam engines from 0 rpm. Most noticeably, the Model B could accelerate from 0 - 60 mph in just 15 seconds, whereas a Model T For of the period took 40 seconds to reach its top speed of 40 - 50 mph..


The four Herff brothers of Indianapolis, IN established separate dealerships for the Marathon automobile in 1913. H.H. Brooks was the salles manager for the Marathon Company. When the Marthon business closed in 1914, Herff  Brothers and Brooks started making cars as the Herff-Brooks name which  was a continuation of the Marthon model.

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1914 Herff-Brooks Automobile

The six-cylinder touring model had a price tag of $1,375 and was the lowest price one on the market and was made under the Herff-Brooks Corporation. It came fully equiped. The roadster was a four cylinder model and priced at $1,175. The Herff-Brooks soon learned the that it was no better a seller than the former Marathon and after going through a receivership, they finally closed down in 1917.

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1914 Herff-Brooks Automobile Advertisement


Milwaukee, Wis., March 16The manufacture of the Vulcan electric gearshaft,up to this time made and marketed by the Vulcan Motor Devices Co., Philadelphia, has been taken over by the Cutler-Hammer Mfg. Co., Milwaukee, Wis. The latter concern will operate a new department in its plant, to be known as the Vulcan electric gearshift department and will continue building the device which is in use on the Haynes, Pullman, S. G. V. and Norwalk cars, under the Vulcan patents. Roger W. Griswold, president of the Vulcan company and W. A. McCarrell, chief engineer, will continue their activities in the construction and sale of the Vulcan gearshift.

These were the same four companies who had installed the electric gear shift in late 1913 for the ir 1914 models. Evidenty, it was not successful in marketing.

March 19, 1914 MOTOR AGE

Americans Develop Art of Wire Wheel Manufacture--Houk Eliminates Many Useless Operations

Probabley the making of wire wheels ln quantities for motor cars is one of the youngest branches of the industry. The growing popular demand for them for large cars as well as their almost general adoption by the makers of light vehicles has opened up a manufacturing field which up to a few months ago was not even
scratched. George W. Houk, a pioneer in the wire wheel business in this country, long ago foresaw the opportunity of producing wire wheels in quantities sufficient to bring the price within reach of the average car buyer. Licensee jointly with another concern for the production in the United States of the triple-spoke-laced wheel under Eudge-Whitworth patents, Mr. Houk set about to simplify the construction in order to get it down to a big production basis, the present Houk wheel having three separate parts being the result. Makes 5,000 Wheels Per Day

Saxon Light

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1914 Saxon Automobile

The Saxon Motor Car Company, Detroit, MI,  put into production their well-designed, well-built Light Saxon automobile for the 1914 season. It was built by a well managed team that was well financed. It was a product of the Chalmers Motor Car Company to compliment his Chalmers model. He install some of his Chalmers' staff to run the Saxon company. Production began in December, 1913 and 3,000 had been made within three months. It had a four-cylinder,  water -cooled engine with shaft drive, and a two-speed transmission and could get 30 mph.  The price was $395. It was orginally made at the former Demot car factory, but with its sales sky rocking, it was moved to the former Abbott factory. Hugh Chalmers sold his interest to Harry Ford in 1915 and reorganized it as the Saxon Motor Car Corporation. Sales were 12,000 cars and was doubled in 1916. A six-cylinder touring model was offered at $785 along with its four-cylinder roadster.

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1914 Saxon Automobile Advertisement

It reached its peak in 1917 with 28,000 being made. They overreached their expections and ordered a huge inventory of parts and had recently built a bigger factory that caused a severe lack of cash. Harry Ford fell ill in 1917 and died a year later. Only 3,400 were built in 1919 and with a not enough money to pay for its new factory, it was sold to General Motors. Troubles continued to haunt the company until 1922, when it went into bankruptcy.

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1916 Saxon Automobile Advertisement

Chandler Light

Copied from the 1914 Motor Age Magazine

One of the new cars of the year is the Chandler Light Six, built by the Chandler Motor Car Co., of Cleveland, O., an organization consisting largely of men who have graduated from the Lozier Motor Co. The car is strictly within the light six class, weighing just under 3,000 pounds, with a wheelbase of 120 inches and a motor with 3 1/2x5 inch cylinedrs. The price is $1,785 for the complete car, or $1,585 for the chassis only

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1914 Chandler Light Six

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1915 Chandler Automobile Advertisement

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1923 Chandler Sedan Automobile

cleveland Roadster (1920)

1920 Cleveland Limousine

Initially called the Emis Motor Car Company, name after C. A. Emise   who was the former sales manager for the Lozier company, it was changed a short time later to Chandler Motor Car Company. It soon became one of the best medium-priced cars in the country. It was a winner in several competetion events through the next several years. It survived the several recessions in great shape and by 1922, its operating capital was $4,000,000 and production was up to 10,000 that year. In 1919, the Cleveland Automobile Company was oprganized as a subsidery of Chandler, to build smaller and cheaper cars. It was absorbe by the parent company and the Cleveland was discontinued. It was now the Chandler-Clevelanf Coporation. In 192, sales began to dwindle and  the company lost over $473,000. The Chandler-Clevelanf Corporation was taken over by Hupp Motor Car Corporation in 1928 and 1929 was its last model year.


The Rex was another car made by C.H. Blomstrom who made four cars previously and like those, it was a failure and it wasn't around for the new year.

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1914 Rex Automobile

Copied from the May, 1914, Motor Age Magazine


A light car of very unusual construction is being built by the Rex Motor Co., Ford, Mich.: A side-by-side standard tread vehicle of: more or less conventional lines, its unusual feature is its transmission arrangement. This car drives from one front wheel, through :tbs3 medium of spur reduction gearing and a friction change speed, arranged to operate on the face of the flywheel, which in this case is at the front of the motor instead of the
rear. The car has a 100-inch wheclbase, 28-inch wheels, with 3-inch tires, and a four-cylinder block motor.  The transmission of the power is direct from the friction disk in front of the motor to the left front wheel It is claimed that this arrangement has an advantage in securing ample traction and yet eliminating expensive construction and the differential. Freedom from skidding also is claimed and said to be due to the fact that the propelling power is a pull instead of a push. Thirty pounds of weight per horse-power is claimed. The car issaid to be capable of from- 40
to 45 miles per -hour. It sells at $425.

May 14, 1914
Factory Conditions in the Hub of the Motor Industry

Alter a visit embracing more than a score of the leading passenger car, truck and accessory factories in Detroit, Motor Age has found the industry in the city of the Straits, which is the mecca of motoring in America, to be in a most favorable condition, bo far as manufacture is concerned. All of the factories are operating at capacity and over half of them are working the machine shops at night and some of them on Sunday forenoons in
addition. A few which started manufacture early are practically through with the production of 1914 models, and are getting cleared away for 1915 jobs. In some factories the first allotment of 1915 models are under construction, although announcements of them will not be made
probably until July 1.



The Wahl Motor Car Company was organized in Detroit in 1913 by a group consisting of George Wahl, Alvin Dodge, and Joseph Hotweber. Hotweber had previously had made arrangements to build his car at the Wahl factory.

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1914 Wahl Automobile

When the Wahl arrived in late summer, it was a medium size car with a 23-hp, four-cylinder touring model. It was publicized to dealers as a ac car that they could attach their name to it and be sold under their names. He was willing to forego his ego to sell his cars. By early fall, the company was in trouble and the creditors closed in and under distress, Wahl comitted suicide.. In January, 1914, the creditors were paid and production continued but problems continued for Hotweber and Dodge. Dodge left the company and the company went bankrupt in December.

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1914 Wahl Auutomobile Advertisement



William Radford had previously designed cars for Warren-Detroit, Olds, and Hudson automobiles, decided to build his third automobile. His last two attempts, Oxford and Fostoria , were failures. Not one to admit failures, he decided to  to build his Pilgrim car in 1914. He mistakenly hired Clarence Leete as the president and temporay offices were used in Detroit. Production was slated to start in February, 1915. It did not and Leete was arrested in May on fraud charges for selling jobs in the company to employees. Radford left the company with only prototypes built.  Leete did not leave the company and was still in charge. Production of the car did  not happen until 1918  and a few were made before the Pilgrim quietlty ceased production.

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1915 Pilgrim Touring Automobile

1915 Pilgrim Automobile Copied from the 1914 Motor Age Magazine

Four-Passenger Body Is Hung LowStreamline AppearanceWire Wheels of the latest small cars to come to the market is the Pilgrim, announced
by the Pilgrim Motor Car Co., Detroit, Mich. It come with an electrical starting system. This new car features nothing radical in fundamental construction but is equipped with a body of unusual streamline design and with electric starting and lighting sells for $650 in four-passenger form. This new car is from the designsof W. H. Radford, a former engineer for the Warren company. The outstanding feature of the newcomer is the body which has a low rakish apearance, bell back, sloping hood with a rather long cowl, graceful fenders, rounded radiator and clean running boards. Upto-the-minute small-car design is use throughout and the units are of standard make and design. The motor, for example, is a four-cylinder, thermo-syphon cooled, and the drive by cone clutch shaft, rear axle gearset and bevel differential and the steering left with center control levers. The equipment has added much to the attractiveness of the car at the price. Wire wheels give it a desired touch. A one-man top, together with the regular appurtenances make it a decidedly well-equipped car of its class. Though the Pilgrim is a small car and weighs but 1,300 pounds fully equipped, it is amply roomy for four passengers on the wheelbase of 100 inches. Tread is standard at 56 inches, and the body is constructed of sheet steel, has 18-inch doors and 28 inches of leg room in both forward and rear compartments. The fenders which are domed conform closely to the wheels and bring the design up to the minute. The fenders and running boards are 9 inches wide, the running board having a length of 57 inches. These parts are made of pressed steel. Wheels are of demountable wire type and carry 30 by 3-inch tires.


Motor Age Magazine

Monroe, Monroe Motor Car Co., Pontiac, Mich., announced its entry into the touring car field with a five-passenger, four-cylinde model with a number of new features. The new car is roomy with its 115-in. wheelbase and it embraces the latest in construction ideas especially in the frame which is the deep section design in which the mud aprons and running boards are a part of the structure. Everything about the car is in line with the latest tendencies. The overhead valve motor, detachable cylinder head, big valves, dry plate clutch, slanting windshield and cantilever springs are exemplifications of this. The familiar Monroe roadster is continued at an increased price and greatly improved. Chief among the changes is the adoption of an entirely new motor with a smaller bore and longer stroke than the previous model.

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1914 Monroe Coupe

The Monroe automobile was a collaboation between R. F. Monroe, owner of the Monroe Body Company in Pontiac, MI and William Durant, owner of the Chevrolet Automobile Company in Flint. It was first built at Flint by the Monroe Motor Company as a separate company from Chevrolet.  The stock holders of the Monroe company were also stock holders of the Chevrolet company and the distribution was handled through Chevrrolet's agencies.

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1916 Monroe Touring Automobile

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1916 Monroe Automobile Advertisement

In 1916, Durant reesigned his position and the Monroe Motor Company moved to the former Welch factory in Pontiac, MI. Capital stock was increased to $1,000,000 and reorganized as the Monroe Motor Car Company and all sales would be handled by this company. Two years later, he went bankrupt and the company was sold to the William Small Company in Indianapolis, IN.  The Pontiac factory was used by General Motors to make its Sampson Tractors. The Monroe was bought and sold several times before it finally became a Premier Model B in 1924.



Copied from the 1914 Motor Age Magazine

A newcomer in the light-car field is the Fischer, which is to be made in quantities in Detroit by the C. J. Fischer Co. This car, with a wheelbase of 104
inches and standard tread of 56 inches, is to be equipped with five body types, all of exceedingly attractive appearance. The present sellings prices are $595 for the speedster, model A; $595 for the two-passenger touring, model B; $645 for the two-passenger cabriolet, model C; $645 for
the four-passenger tourist, model D; to $845 for the four-passenger sedan, model E. All models except the model A speeder are artillery wood type, a set of five Houk wire wheels may be had for $30 extra. The model A is equipped with these regularly. Tires on models A, B and C are 30 by 3, while the others take 31 by 31/2  size. The wood wheel outfits are fitted with demountable rims.

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1914 Fischer Touring Automobile

The Fischer-Detroit was introduced by the C. J. Fischer Company at the November New York Automobile Show as a light car. It made an attempt to locate to York, PA,  with the citizens providing $50,000 for capital funds. It was going to become the Fischer Motor Vehicle Company. Some Fischer-Detroits were already in York, but no more were made.Its assets were sold for $8,000 in 1914.

Milburn Electric

Copied from the October 1914 Motor Age Magazine

The Milburn Wagon Co., Toledo, Oh.. will market early this month an electric coupe at $1,485, a roadster at $1,295,and a delivery wagon at $985. Taking advantage of the public's approval and acceptance of weight reduction, the Milburn company has made its vehicles of less weight than the average cars of the same type, it is claimed.

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1915 Milburn Electric Automobile

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Milbun Electric Automobile Advertisement

Gracefully curved body lines have been woven into these new cars and the interior appointments are only slightly at variance with those found in the more expensive vehicles, it is stated. The coupe body is mounted on a 100-inch wheelbase chassis equipped with cantilever springs both front and rear and so constructed that a low-hung body is obtained. This body has 26-inch doors, sashless windows and an attractive interior arrangement. Both doors and windows are provided with mechanical window lifts. A twenty-cell Philadelphia battery is used and with it the maker claims a maximum speed of 20 miles per hour is obtained and a mileage range of from 60 to 75 miles per charge. The battery rating is 180 ampere-hours. The driving mechanism consists of a General Electric motor and controller affording four forward speeds and two reverse. Horizontal
levers are used for the controls. The remainder of the drive consists of a shaft to a three-quarters floating rear axle equipped with worm gears. Bear wheel brakes are internal and external fitted with Thermoid lining. A feature of this system is that an alarm will ring should the brakes be set while the power is on. The roadster chassis specifications are almost the same as those of the coupe. The wheelbase is the same but the battery capacity is greater by 25 ampere-hours, giving a mileage limit of about 75 miles per charge. The roadster weighs less than the coupe. Another differenc lies in the steering, which in the roadster is by wheel instead of by lever.

The Milburn Electric was manufactured until 1922 when General Motors bought the company to build the Buick automobiles.


The Chevrolet Automobile Company was in the act to best the Ford Motor Conmpany as the lowest price automobile in the country. Henry Ford was not going to be outdone and he took action that only he could do, He fought back with this article in the Motor Age Magazine.

Ford Company Drops Its Price $60 Per Car for 191 5
Additional Rebate if 300,000 Machines Are Made

DETROIT, MICH., Aug. 1Beginning today and until August 1,1915, the prices of the Ford cars are, respectively, $440 on the runabout, $490 on the touring car and $690 on the town car. This is a reduction of $60 on the prices which prevailed up to today, and represents the biggest reduction in price in proportion to the num- ber of cars made in the history of the Ford Motor Co. Last year a reduction of only $50 was made. More sensational than the reduction in price is the announcement of the company that, provided 300,000 Ford cars are sold between August 1, 1914, and August 1, 1915, every buyer of a Ford car purchased between those dates will receive a bonus or remittance of from $40 to $60 per car. This means that if within the next 12 months or 365 days 300,000 Ford cars are sold a total of $18,000,000 will be returned by the Ford company to the purchaser of these 300,000 cars. This would bring down the price of the little Ford runabout to $380. It also would mean that actually a reduction of $120 had been made over the 1914 prices and would correspond to a total of $36,000,000 less income to the Ford company. "Our fiscal year ends in September," said one of the officers of the Ford company, "and during the first 9 months we have sold 203,194 cars, or a monthly average of 22,500 cars, and there is no reason why this average is not going to be kept up during the remaining 3 months, which will bring the total output for the year up to 270,694 cars, or about 86,000 more than during the previous 12months.

"With all the improvements for production facilities which have been put into the Ford organization, with the skilled artisans which do our work, with the 'no-wait of material and time' policy which governs the entire Ford policy, there is nothing surprising if   we manufacture more than 300,000 cars. "Nor will we have any 30,000 or 40,000 men working in our plant. It is not the number of men that work in a plant that
actually do the work, but rather the quality of the men, or in other words, you can get further with 1,000 first-class skilled workingmen than with 2,000, of which half only are first-class artisans. "We try to increase our production through other means than increasing the working force. Of course, when we expand, when we add to our plant as the increase in our business might require it, we will add to our force, but we are not    going to crowd or overcrowd our present plant, but we will rather keep up the policy of having the force now employed become more and more efficient and produce more.

'' The rumor that we will build $1,000 six-cylinder car is almost too ridiculous to be considered, as it would mean that we would have to put up an entirely new plant, which is not our intention. Even if we wanted it we could not build a six-cylinder or, in fact, any other model in our present plant excepting if we make a thorough change in machinery and equipment, and this, of course, is out of the question.

"Years ago Henry Ford decided that all the energy, the efforts, the science of the Ford organization should be in always  perfecting the one model, and this has been the course of the company ever since. The results speak for themselves."  The reduction of the Ford prices concerns only the American Ford company and the output of 300,000 cars must be produced by the Detroit plant.


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1914 Hall Light Car Advertisement

Lawrence Hall, Waco, TX, owned athe Hall Cycle and Plating Company along with his partner, John Fisher. His prototype with a Spacke engine was deiven for a hundred miles using a little less than three gallons of gasoline.His production car was a four-cylinder light with an 18-horse power engine. The wheelbase was 104 inches with a 36 inch tread. The company was originally organized as the Hall Cyclecar Company, but was reorganized in 1914 as the Hall Motor Car Company. He closed down that year for lack of sales.


The Cartermobile was designed by J. O. Carter's Carter Motor & Manufacturing Company in Hannibal, MO, in 1915. His advertisement was pretty-far-fetched to say the least. His only automobile was his prototype. None were put into production and this advertisement is the only known fact of his car was was ever made.

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1914 Cartermobile Advertisement

However, he was not about to give up. In 1916, he tried again, but the Cartermobile was now the Brownie car. It was a short lived venture.


The advertisement was overdone, but the Vulcan was a very good little car. It was associated with cyclecars that did harm to its reputation. It was powered by a four-cycle, 27-horsepower engine and came in two wheelbase sizes, 105 and 115.  The transmission was three peeds and shaft driven. With all of the electrric accessories, it was priced under $1,000 that was a bargain. It was organized as he Vulcan Motor Car Company, but financial troubles began and it was soon reorganized as the Vulcan Mfg. Co. in Painsville, OH.

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1914 Vulcan Automobile Advertisement

The car was built by Driggs-Seabury, Sharon, PA who also made cars for othe companies. Alonzo Marsh of the former Marsh Brothers Motor Car Company, Brockton, MM, was the designer. He left the company within a short time in a state of anger and went back to Brockton to design another car. Shortly thereafter, the Vulcan company went into receivership.


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1913 Vulcan Electric Gear Shift Advertisement

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1914 Vulcan Electrical Gearshift Advertisement


F. R. P

November 12, 1914, MOTOR AGE
F. R. P. High-Priced Car, Produced by Finley Porter

Finley K. Porter, who recently severed his connections as chief engineer of the Mercer Automobile Co., has incorporated the Finley Robertson Porter Co. under the laws of the state of New York. The company is incorporated for $100,000, with Mr. Porter president; P. D. Veiller, vice-president; H. Adams, second vice-president; C. H. Froelich, secretary, and R. B. Porter, treasurer. It is the intention of the company to produce the F. R. P. car, and they have bought the plant of the Metropole Car Co. in Port Jefferson, L. I., N. Y. Experimental work has been carried on in Woonsocket, R. I., and the equipment has now been moved to the Port Jefferson factory preparatory to manufacturing. This chassis with a four-cylinder valee-in-the-head motor sells for $5,000. The use of alloy steel and design which has proved successful in racing machines is characteristic of the oar. As the designer of cars which have captured many road contests in the 300-inch class, it is natural to suppose that the new car Mr. Porter has brought out would incorporate all the ideas of speed and lightness that the designer has gained during his experience as a creator of racing vehicles. The result is a chassis selling for $5,000, incorporating a motor stated to develop more than 100 horsepower and weighting, when fitted with a seven-passenger body, less than 3,500 pounds, according to the designer's figures.

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1915 F.R.P Automobile

When the Mercer Motor Car Company decided to change its engine design from a T head , designed by Finley R. Porter,  to an L head, Porter left the company to make hi own car, known as the F. R. P. and imcorporated the Finley Robertson Porter Motor Company on Long Island. His first endeavor was building three racing cars. When two of them failed to start because of motor problems, he decided to make a better car than the Mercer.  His automobile was ready for production in late 1914 with a single-overhead-camshaft four-cylinder engine that developed 100 hp. Its gasoline mileage was 12 miles per gallon and easily could be driven at 80 mph. It is estimated thatten cars had been built before the government took over his factory for the war effort. After the war, he went to work for the Curtiss Engineering Corporation. He decided to continue with car production, but the name was changed to Portor.



Simple construction, light weight an low operating cost has been the keynote in designing the new Porter car. The car is the product of Finley R. Porter, former chief engineer of the Mercer Automobile Co. and builder of the F .R. P. racing cars. As might be expected the engine is a high-power job, having a bore of 4.6 in. and stroke of 6.75 in. and develops 140 hp. at 2600 r.p.m. There are four cast-in-block cylinders, each having two inlet and two exhaust valves in the head.  An exceptionally long wheelbase is provided, being 142 in. Springs are seml- ellliptlc and the wheels wood, 34". fitted with cord tires 35 by 5 in.

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1919 Porter Closed Sedan Automobile
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1919 Porter Automobile

The Porter automobile production was continued after the war. It was essentially the same car but made by a different company, American & British Manufacturing Corporation.   Porter has previously left the company. Its diostributeor was Morton W. Smith Co., NYC. The engine now had a 100-horsepower engine and had British and German features anf its price was not cheap. The chassis was $6,750 and $10,000 completed. Itg was well received at the automobiles, but it did not survive beyond 1922 with ony 36 having been made. 

The cyclecar rage was still going strong in 1914 with many companies entering into production. They were being entered in the top automobile shows and had huge crowds at their booths during the shows. At the Boston Automobile Show held in March, fourteen makers were represented and sales were very brisk


Copied from the October 29, 1914 Motor Age Magazine

In bringing out the Argo car, Benjamin Briscoe and his associates in the Argo Motor Co., Inc., Jackson, Mich., undoubtedly have reached a very low price level, the machine being offered at $295. It is equipped with a four-cylinder, water-cooled motor, has shaft-drive and a sliding gearset. The total weight of the car is given at 750 pounds, while its wheelbase is 90 inches and tread 44 inches. Cars now are being produced at the plant in the Michigan city, and it is expected to soon get under way at a lively rate. The motor is a 4-cylinder of the L-head type having cylinders and crankcase cast in one block. The motor, which has a horsepower of from 8 to 12, is a good example of the development which has come in the last year or so in the making of small four-cylinder motors for use in the lighter types of cars. The price is $295.00 which is very low for this type of a car.

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1914 Argo Automobile

Originally, the Argo was a cyclecar that was supposed to have been built in New York, but when the final decision was made , it was in Jackson, MI and production began in 1914. When the craze for cyclecars had waned to zero, the car was made slighty larger with a conventional tread and the name was changed to Wego.

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1915   Argo Automobile

Brisco became bored with his car and sold it in 1916 to Mansell Hackett who reorganized the company as Hackett Motor Car Company. The remaining parts were assembled as Argo cars.

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1915 Argo Automobile Advertisement



One of the strangest automobiles that was ever made, and there were a lot of them, was James Scripps-Booth's 1912 Bi-Autogo car that had the first eight-cylinder, 45-horsepower motor that could drive it at 75 mph. It was started by compresssed air self-starter, and was enclosed chain  driven with a four speed transmission. 450 feet of copper tubing wrapped around the hood was used for cooling. At slow speeds, two small wheels on each side were used  and were raised at higher speeds.  The prototype cost $25,000 to build and Scripps-Booth considered the cost would be prohibitive to put into production. His next vehicle was the Rocket car.

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1912 Scripps-Booth Bi-Autogo Automobile

1912 Scripps-Booth Bi-Autogo Automobile

Copied from the 1914 Motor Age Magazine

Body and frame are built as a unit with armored wood sills and metal sides. The deep cowl forms a continuous line with the hood, and the streamline effect is further developed by the rounded stern, which affords luggage space. The frame is narrowed at the front. Two doors are provided on the right-hand side. Seats are 22 inches wide and 15 inches deep, and there is 30 inches leg room in front of the front seat. The upholstery is of a waterproof black material. An adjustable wind shield is a feature of standard equipment, together withthree lamps, a horn and a tool kit. Top and side curtains are furnished for $15 additional, and the speedometer costs $12. Storage battery or gas tank for lamps is also charged for as an extra. The price with standard equipment is $385. The production name was the Packet.

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1914 Scripps-Booth Rocket Cycle Car

It was put into production as the Rocket model and it was powered by an air-cooled Spacke two-cylinder engine. The wheelbase was 100 inches and its tread was 36 inches. The transmssion was two-speeds and belt driven. The price was $385 and a delivery version, known as the Packet, was priced at $395.Itwas considered as one of the best cycle cars made, but that fad soon faded and so did the production of this model.


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1915 Scripps-Booth Automobile

November 5, 1914 MOTOR AGE
Scripps-Booth $775 Roadster Has Electric Door Locks
Luxury of Expensive Cars Aim of Design in New Vehicles

A four-cylinder three-passenger roadster at $775, a coupe and a cabriolet on the same chassis are the surprises of the Scripps-Booth Co., Detroit,
Mich., which for the past 6 months has been working on this car. It is claimed the appointments, luxuriousness and equipment of the most expensive vehicies offered by American manufacturers are to be found on the new model. With a 110-inch wheelbase and three tread options, 40, 56 and 60 inches, this newly-announced car possesses a number of features not usually found on a car of its size or weight. The most attractive points of both body and chassis are: The electric door latches operated by a  push button, placed close to the door in the side of the body, operates the latch magnetically electric door latches, eliminating entirely door handles of any form. A four-cylinder 2 1/2 by 4 valve-in-the-head motor, a cleverly-designed body of the streamline type, Houk wire wheels, cantilever rear springs and various other features of minor importance, but tending to add to the comfort qualities of the car. Three body styles are offered, roadster, cabriolet, and coupe.

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1915 Scripps-Booth Automobile Advertisement

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1916 Scripps-Booth Roadster Automobile

Scripps-Booth planned a sporting version of his 1916 models and a prototype with a V-eight engine was exhibited at various automobile shows. However, the board of directiors vetoed the idea.   The engine was decided to be put into a larger four passenger, Model D, car, priced at $1,175 and a a novel removeable hardtop. Town cars were also made and were sold to some of the more notable people of the day. Production up to this time stood at 6,000 and this wwas the highlite of the company. In November, the company went public with the purchase of the Sterling Motor Company of Detroit. Scripps-Booth was against the idea. The cars began to develope problems and they were referred to as "Scrap Bolts". There were other changes that irritated Scripps-Booth, including the Sterling engine being replaced with a Chevrolet 490 model. He wanted the company to build its own engines, but he was turned down. This was the last straw and he resigned. Chevrolet absorbed the company in 1917 and it became just another General Motors model until it was closed down in 1922..


Flamboyant was the one word description for this neat looking cyclecar that was made in Saginaw, MI by the Valley Boat and Engine Company in 1914. It was powered by the company's four-stroke 91/2 horse power, vee-twin engine. The body was so designed to stand out from all of the other  look-alike cycle cars that were being made. Newell Banard, the owner of the company, declared that it had been tested in sand and snow and went where other cars couldn't.

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1914 Saginaw Cyclecar

The fenders were made into the body, made from wood and steel frame,   flowed with a curve all the way to the front. Friction transmission was used and the final drive was by V-belts. Including top, curtains, Stewart-Warner spedometer, electric horn, toos , and a repair kit, the price was $395. It was discontinued at the end of the year.


The Elbert was designed by F. W. Tompkin an enginer from the Chicago Pneumatic Tub Company and was finance by a silent partner named Elbert.  The Elbert Motor Car Co., Seattle, Wash, was incorporated and the production began.

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1914 Elbert Cycle Car

Copied from the October, 1914 Motor Age Magazine

"Another car has been added to the already long list of low-priced passenger vehicles, the latest being the Elbert, which lists at $295 as a tandem seater. It is of the narrow-tread type, being 36 inches across and the wheelbase is 102 inches. Motor car practice on a small scale is employed throughout. The motor is a four block cast, with a removable cylinder head and incorporating many other features found on larger motors. A cone clutch, two-speed selective gearset and floating rear axle are the essential running gear units. The rear axle is equipped with a gearless differential.The steering post is in the center of the car and the wheels are wire fitted with 28 by 3 tires. The car has a body of the streamline type."

In 1915, the company was relocated to Sunnyvale, CA. At $295, it was the lowest price car that was being made. However, it was discontinued in the summer of 1915. It at had been started at the top of the cyclecar popularity that was soon to take a sharpe dive and out of production.


Frank H. Morse of Pittsburgh, PA was a well known engineer who had been previously involve with several major companies, the last being Duquesne in Pittsburgh. When that company closed, he decide to build his own car. It was his Morse Cyclecar. One of its distinguishable features was it front drive, a noveltty for a cyclecar. He tested his prototype for two yearsby driving 6,000 miles before incorporating his Morse Cyclecar Company in 1915 and went into production that summer.

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1914 Morse Cyclecar

By then, the fad for these small cars was over and after one year, so was he.


Copied from 1914, Horseless age Magazine

The Robie, made in Chicago, is a distinctive tandem-seating small car with unique construction in both body and chassis. The final drive is by a single chain to a live rear axle, perhaps the only small car on the present market using this method. The motor is built in the Robie shops in Chicago and is of the two cylinder air-cooled type with 90 degree cylinders of 3 1/2 by 4 3/32 inches bore and stroke. The motor drives a friction transmission which is under the hood. The car has no differential, but drives through the solid axle, and is equipped with wire wheels with sheet metal sides, designed to lessen wind resistance. The Robie has a 108-inch wheelbase, 36-inch tread and sells for $375 upward.

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1914 Robie Automobile

Frank Robie designed one of the raciest cycles on the market in 1914. Its swooping fenders, solid disk wheel, and one head light in the center made it a mean-looking machine. Massnick-Phipps Manufacturing Company, Detroit, built the car for the Robie Motor Car Company in Chicago. Robie was not satisfied with his car and had planned to build a bigger car with a a four cylinder water cooled, 45-horse power engine. It was supposed to have been built bythe Pullman Company in York, PA, but his money ran out.

Lincoln Highway

Lincoln Co. Introduces New Type of Three-Passenger Car.

Copied from the 1914 Horseless Age Magazine

The American Motorette Co., of Detroit, recently changed its name to Lincoln Motor Car Co. to avoid confusion with the names of some of the cyclecar companies, and is now making announcement of its first product for the market under the name of the Lincoln car, "Highway Roadster" model. It is a light car with 100-inch wheelbase, and the most unusual feature is the seating arrangement, which places a two-passenger seat well back over the rear axle and provides a folding auxiliary seat facing forward for a third passenger. The striking appearance of the little car is also enhanced by the use of a Renault-type sloping hood, with radiator at the dash.

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1914 Lincoln Highway Light Car.

The Lincoln Motor Car Co. was organized in Detroit in 1914 by former officials of the Keeton Automobile Co. and was designed by H. D. W Mackaye. A relatative few were made before it went under that year.


The Blood Brothers from Kalamazoo, MI, owners of the Blood Bothers Machine Shop, had built their Blood automobiles in Kalamazoo from 1902-1906 before going back to their former automobile parts manufacturing. Howard Blood, son of Maurice Blood , wanted to return to building cars. Young Howard designed a cycle car of beautiful proportions and was not the standard model that was being made. I looked like any normal roadster, but its tread was 56 inches giving enough room for three people in the front seat.

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1914 Cornelian Cyclecar

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1915 Cornelian Automobile

It was entered into the 1915 New York Automobile Show and received rave reviews. Howard decided to put it into production, but  In order to do it, they had to build a bigger factory, and  to get  help from the city. The city refused, but Allegan, MI, was eager for them to build there factory there. By March, the move was completed and production began. A special Cornelian was entered into the Indianapolis Race and was in the money. This spurred sales and a work force of 240 employees and the factory working 24 hours a day began to build the cars building 25 cars per week. Afer a 100 were built the factory suddenly closed down for lack of sales. The reputation of its Indianapolis feat had waned.

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1915 Cornelian Automobile Advertisement


Boston, Mass., Nov. 21, 1914

Do not loan your motor car to anyone unless you are satisfled to assume the responsibility for any accidents is what the Massachusetts law says as a result of a recent decision in thecourt at Boston. Edward W. Arnold owns an attractive camp at South Weymouth, and he uses a motor car there a great deal. In May, 1912, he had as guests there Miss Annie M. Blackwell, of Bockland, and Elsie M. Taylor, of Weymouth. They coaxed him to take them for a motor ride, but he did not care to go. But feminine pleading was so strong that finally he threw the key to his garage to them and the girls went for a ride with Harry L. Thompson, another visitor. Mr. Arnold knew that Thompson could drive the car, and that he had a license. On a road in Mansfield on their return, after they had picked up another passenger, Miss Beryl Binine, they ran down a team driven by Harry W. Campbell. The latter was injured and he brought suit. The court held that Arnold was liable for damages when he knowinglyallowed Thompson to take the car and
Campbell was awarded $600 and costs.


CINCINNATI, O., Dec. 4An opinion of interest to all manufacturers and dealers in motor cars was handed down today by Judge Hollister of the United States district court here, in which he holds that the contracts entered into by the Ford Motor Co. of Detroit, with its agents whereby the resale price of Ford cars was fixed by the Ford company, are invalid. The matter was brought up in a suit filed more than a year ago by the Ford company against the Union Motor Sales Co., Lucian A. Howard, J. Carl Horton, Earl Saunby and William T. S. Yocum, all of Dayton, Oh.

The Ford company, in this suit, sought an injunction to restrain the defendants from representing that they could and would sell Ford cars at less than the regular list price of the Ford company, from dealing in Ford cars and from "conspiring" with regularly licensed agents of the Ford company to break the company's price restrictions and obtain cars from them at prices less than the regular retail prices as fixed by the company in contractswith its licensed agents. It was proved at the hearing of the case that the defendants did obtain Fords from regular Ford agents at prices which made it possible for the defendants to resell them to persons holding membership in the Union Motor Sales Co. at a price less by from 10 to 15 per cent than the regular retail price fixed by the Ford company. The court's opinion covers fourteen type-written pages and discussed at length the rights of a manufacturer-patentee-licensor under the patent laws and under the Sherman anti-trust act. Judge Hollister holds that the supreme court of the United States does not approve of a license contract of the form employed by the Ford company.

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