History of Early American Automobile Industry

Chapter 9


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Addendum 1    Addendum 2   Addendum 3


It is hard to believe that ten years had psssed since the Duryea automobile made its appearance into an era in American history that was to see the development of the country's greatest industry. An industry that was either loved or hated depending on ones vision of what it was, a damnaton or salvation. Even after ten years, it was loathed by citizens and municipal governments and city fathers were constantly enacting ordinances to prevent it it in their towns. But fortunately, the believers won the battles and industry forged ahead with top notch speed and we are reaping its benefits.

If one had to choose which person who contributed most to the beginning of the industry, Ransom E. Olds should be at the top of the list. His first car was a three wheel steam model built in 1887, another steam model was built in 1891, and his third model was a gasonline model in 1896 that he used as a prototype in late 1897, when he was finally satisfied that it was ready to do so. From 1897 to 1899, he also made steam and electric automobiles. He had working for him some of the most notable men in the industry. In 1900, his factory burned down, leaving him with one automobile. Starting from scratch, he redesigned his car into a curved dash model that became the best sellier for the next six years. His was the first automobile company to use the production line in 1902. The carriage makers of Amesbury, MA, had been using this same method  since 1853.    Many of his allies in the Olds Motor Works at Detroit went out on their own and   became giants in the industry. His ambition was to make cars that anyone could afford and this did not set well with the company's board.  He left in 1904 to form his own company known as R.E. Olds Company with the model called Reo.

Copied From the 1903 Automobile Review Magazine

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1903 Oldsmobile Plant
The Home of the Oldsmobile and the Olds Gas and Gasoline

Two large factories at Lansing and one at Detroit, Mich., are now working day and night to supply the demand for the Oldsmobile and the Olds Engines. The growth of the Olds Motor Works since the start of the firm in a small building measuring 18x26 feet at Lansing in 1890 has been remarkable. The gasoline runabout and the Olds Engines are used in nearly every civilized country in the world. The Detroit plant has a total floor space of 115,000 square feet; the River Street plant at Lansing, 100.000 square feet, and newly completed factory, has 125,000 square feet, giving a total floor space of 340,000 square feet. Specially designed machinery for making the various parts of the Oldsmobile and the gasoline engines fills every available inch of room. The testing floors for the engines are fitted with many devices for testing each detail of their construction and the Oldsmobile is subjected to similarly severe tests in the factory in addition to grade climbing and actual road tests.

In addition to the demand for gas and gasoline engines and the placing on the market of a 10 H. P. touring car, a fully enclosed gasoline coupe for physicians' use and a gasoline delivery wagon, the Olds Motor Works will make over 10,000 of the runabouts this year.The Olds Motor Works have prepared for further growth by securing 12 acres of land adjacent to the Detroit factory and 56 acres adjoining the new factory at Lansing. This great expenditure of money compels us to think that the automobile has come to stay. (End of Article)

This article could have been written about many companies that got their start in the 1890's.


Copied from the 1903 Automobile Review Magazine

What The Automobile Can Do

The automobile is a most prominent factor in modern education and travel and a pleasant form of transportation that appeals more potently, and widely, to the intelligence of the man or woman, than any other form of enjoyment. Yachting has its discomforts and perils, appealing to but few of the many who have the means to indulge in it. The horse has its limitations and cannot travel day and night continuously. People are more stimulated by the automobile than by any other sport, and the man who knows nothing whatever of mechanics or engineering finds unalloyed pleasure in automobiling. Within a decade the genius of the engineer has achieved more advancement in the science of road locomotion than in any other direction. He has created a machine that travels over a mile a minute on a track and has averaged over 40 miles an hour for 500 miles on ordinary roads. A machine that will outstrip ordinary mail trains, or move as gently through the streets as a hansom cab; a machine that will take its owner across the continent as easily as it will take him down to his office from his suburban home.

Don't turn your back on the sport if a large machine is beyond your means. Get a runabout; they are reliable and handier for the every day business man than a French racing or touring car.


1903 Automobile Review

Antomobile Illinois legislature have passed a measure known as the Lyons bill, limiting the maximum-minimum speed of automobiles in Cook county. Ill.  to 15 miles an hour, except where otherwise expressly pro-vided by incorporated cities or towns, and to cap the climax, the South Park commissioners of Chicago have passed an ordinance forbidding the use of the boulevards to automobiles unless numbered in letters at least 5 inches high and one and one-half wide.

Dealing first with the speed restrictions, as every practical automobllist knows, 15 miles an hour is a ridiculous speed limit, especially in the open country, and either Mr. Lyons never drove a car or he is more timid than his name would indicate. This speed was about the limit employed In the New York to Boston endurance contest, and it was immediately evident that it was too slow; it hardly allowed the engines to turn over fast enough for good ignition, kept the low gears In a great part of the time, with consequent uneconomical operation, vibration and noise, and made minor troubles more constant and liable to happen. For some reason or another it never occurs to the ordinary legislator to consult an expert in matters mechanical, before framing restrictive legislation. Fifteen miles an hour in the streets of a city with twenty-flve to thirty in open country might be acceptable to motorists, but the terms of the present bill most certainly are not and they must be modified. By the terms of the law, violators can be fined not less than $25 nor more than $200, and may be thrown into jail for three months. Claimants for damages against automobilists will only have to show the injury and prove that the motorist was running at an unlawful speed to make a prima facie case. Among other restrictions are the coming to a full stop, if it shall appear that any horse is about to become frightened.

The Automobile Review has never been opposed to reasonable automobile restrictions, but it does object most strenuously to unusual and impractical ones, and it believes that the automobilists themselves have just as much right to be consulted and have something to say in the matter as anyone, and that their suggestions should be carefully considered. Automobiles can be controlled far more easily than horse carriages and the powerful machinery that drives them will also bring them to a standstill almost instantly, so that higher speed is certainly permissible. The conveyance for Mr. Lyons and legislators of his ilk is a jinrikisha or a sedan chair.The indignity of numbering their cars in letters of extravagant size and conspicuousness has always been objected to by automobilists. It savors too much of the convict and the next thing some facetious city father will want to put on the long suffering chauffeur will be a striped suit, so that the tianeformation may be complete.

Imagine our modest fellow townsmen, F. C. Donald and Frank X. Mudd, those two wheelhorses of the Chicago Automobile Club, speeding down the boulevard in suc'.i a garb. Think of the distress to their retiring, unobtrusive natures. Oh, the pity of it. A plain monogram of small numbers have both been suggested as satisfactory identification marks and one or the other would be acceptable to automobilists. On another page are reproduced numbers of the size demanded by the park board and the monstrosity of the proposition is apparent. It is high time that common sense prevailed in the regulating of automobiles. (End of Article)

Ordinances like these were enacted in every hamled in the country. But as the industry kept growing and more people could afford to buy cars, these nonsensable ordinances were soon removed from the books. In 1917, St. Louis enacted an ordinance for horse-drawn vehicles removed from city streets.

1903 was the year that the industry was able to indentify itself as building American cars for the American public. European manufacturers were now taking a back seat to its overseas neophytes and were envious of its successes. It was also the year that was time to prove what an American car could do. There were three cross country trips made. The first one wa a leasurely trip to prove that an automobile could actually travel across the from the Paxific to the Atlantic.It was automobiledone by two men, with no mechanical experience, purchasing a used Winton from a dealer.and set out to do what no one had done before.   The other two trips were done by experienced company employees with especially equipped cars and racing against the time that had been done earlier.

These trips have been copied from the automobile journals of the time.


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1905 Grout Racer with Cannon and Grout

In 1901, Winton atempted to cross the United States from San Francisco to New York in his automobile. This was a momental endeavor to prove the that it could be done and his Winton car could do it. He did not make it, but he did not give up hope that it coulsd be done. He vowed that he would try again. It just so happened that Dr. H. Nelson Jackson was in San Francisco in 1903 and he also got the idea to attempt to cross the country to his home in Vermont. He chose the Winton car to do it and his friend Sewall Crocker as his driver. His motive was to prove it could be done and not how fast it would be accomplished. They were in no hurry. On his journey, they stopped to let the people inspect his vehicles and let them ride in it. One such stop was to give a lady a ride to show her friends. Many days were spent with no driving at all. They picked up a stray dog along the way, named him Bud and gave him a pair of goggles to keep them company, Thus, Bud goes down as one of the most famous dogs in our history. They Spent sixty-three days to reach New York City.

The Oldsmobile was determined to reap some advertising advantage and set out to break the time of the Winton automobile. However their attempt was for speed and they made a special Oldsmobile vehicle to do it. It was transferred to San Francisco by ship and their driver and mechanic were chosen to do the undertaking. With all out speed, their time was two days shorter and they triuphantly claimed to the world of this famous feat.

For the first time these two races have been shown together with detaile infoermation and pictures taken along the way by the occuptants of the cars.


Copied from the July Edition of the 1903 Automobile Topics Magazine

1903 Cross Country by Dr Jackson in his Winton Automobile

Without unnecessary tooting of horns and minus the assistance of a press agent, the first automobile to cross the continent ends its long journey this week,at Burlington, Vt. The story of first trip, still uncompleted, is told in the Cleveland Leader, as follows: Dr. H. Nelson Jackson, of Burlington, Vt., will soon enfiy the enviable distinction among automobilists of being the first to successfully cross the American Continent, from the Pacific to the Atlantic.

And a feature which makes the enterprise of Dr. Jackson the more interesting is that he is in no manner connected with the automobile industry, iither as a manufacturer or salesman. The motive which tempted him to undertake the hazardous trip was a queer one, to say the least. He overheard a party San Francisco automobilists discuss the transcontinental project, and listened to their verdict that it was quite impossible to put it through. He is now well on his way to Cleveland, having left Chicago yesterday morning. The heavy rains of early yesterday morning were general throughout northern Ohio, Indiana and Illinois, and the resultant condition of the roads between Chicago and Cleveland will render quite impossible his reaching Cleveland to-day. But the hard part of the journey is covered; the rugged climbs of the Sierras and Rockies and the quicksands and alkali of the far western deserts are left behind. From Cleveland on to New York the journey is comparatively easy, and the expedition is sure to finish. The story of the trip, as received last night from Chicago, is as follows:

A group of young men were sitting in the University Club rooms in San Francisco, Cal., one day last May, discussing the progress of automobiling in the United States. During the conversation the assertion was made that it was practically an impossibility to cross the continent in an automobile. The different attempts made in previous years were cited as instances to prove the statement, and the entire party agreed with the speaker that the trip could not be made successfully. At a nearby table sat a quiet, determined-looking young man, who could not help overhearing the conversation. He became interested, r.id leaned forward to better hear what was being said. After the utter impossibility of the transcontinental trip by automobile had been settled to the satisfaction of the group of men the listener left the clubhouse and went to his office."Where is Crocker?" he asked of the office boy. "Just went into the back room, sah." The door opened as he spoke, and Crocker came in.

I just heard some men say it is an impossibility to drive an automobile across the United States. Do you think it can be done?" "Yes, sir; I believe it can," responded the young man. And that is the way Dr. H. Nelson Jackson started on his transcontinental trip, which is now almost at a successful termination. Dr. Jackson is a resident of Burlington, Vt., and was spending the Winter in California with his wife. Sewall K. Crocker, who is with him on the trip, lives at Tacoma, Wash. He is only 22 years old, but he is an experienced chauffeur. Four days after the above conversation, or on May 23, the two men started on their overland journey. A new Winton car, 1903 model, which had reached the coast only four weeks before, was purchased, a complete camping outfit secured, Mrs. Jackson was put aboard the train, and all was in readiness for the trip.

Leaving San Francisco on the morning of May 23, the trip to Sacramento was made without particular incident. Dr. Jackson decided to go northward first, thus avoiding the desert and the rough traveling through Nevada, Utah and Colorado, and at the same time being able to see the magnificent scenery of the north country. From Sacramento the route was directly north into Oregon through the Great Desert. The second day out the camping outfit was lost, and thereafter the travelers subsisted on cold lunches, or sometimes on the memories of lunches they had had the day before.

At one time they were 36 hours without food. They were in the midst of a trackless desert, and traveled all day without seeing a soul. Fortunately, they had a small supply of drinking water in the water bag. and this was carefully hoarded. The engine of the car was supplied with alkali water. After 30 hours of fasting they began to look hungrily at their boots, and Crocker said he had heard that raw dog was not bad eating. At this remark, "Bud," the bulldog who accompanied them, gave a low growl of dissatisfaction, and the doctor indignantly declined to take the proffered hint to go into cannibalistic session over the mascot. The dog was hungry, too, so they all decided to starve together.

At the end of the 36th hour they sighted a lonely sheep herder. Their anxious inquiry for food was rewarded with a roast lamb and boiled corn. To the famished motorists it was the finest meal they had ever tasted. After thoroughly satisfying their hunger the doctor asked the herder what he charged. "Charge? You're the first human beings I've seen for three weeks. S'pose I'm goin' to let you pay for that lamb? The doctor prevailed on the man to accept his rifle, however, and he said he felt like giving him the car if he had asked for it. The delight over a good meal had made him generous.

The Oregon Short Line Railroad was reached at Ontario, Ida., and then the route was northeast to Blackfoot, and from there to Pocatello. From this place they followed the railroad to Granger. There were no serious difficulties encountered except sand and rock, and these the engine pulled them through and over. The only people they met on this part of the trip outside of the towns were emigrants in prairie schooners. Many of these had never even heard of an automobile, and some of them were badly frightened at the strange-looking monster that bore down upon them. One man, when he saw the car approaching, hastily unhitched his horses and turned them loose, while he and his family got into the wagon and were down on their knees when the car stopped. They thought the judgment day had come. Others thought an engine had run away from the railroad and was plowing across their ranches.

At Granger it was found necessary to go about 60 miles north, and over the foothills to Cheyenne, because of the heavy rains. From Cheyenne the Union Pacific Railroad was followed to Omaha. This part of the trip was the hardest traveling because of the rains and washouts. The buffalo wallows, as the washouts are called, proved the most trying experiences of the trip. Often the car was in mud until the motor was covered. When these spots were reached they had to resort to a block and tackle, which they carried with them. A hole was dug, and the block buried in it. Then the rope was attached to the car and the engine started. In this ingenious manner the car literally pulled itself out of the hole. One day this performance was gone through with 17 times, and from five o'clock in the morning until dark they made only 16 miles. From Granger to Omaha the block and tackle had to be used at least two or three times every day.

The first good traveling after leaving California was reached when the tourists struck the old military road in the western part of Nebraska. From Omaha to Chicago the route was along the Chicago & Northwestern Railroad. Chicago was reached Friday, July 17, at 10 o'clock in the morning. The route chosen by the doctor was about 4,000 miles long to Chicago. The exact mileage could not be kept because their cyclometer was lost on the desert. Eighteen of the 54 days spent in reaching Chicago they did no traveling whatever; so that in the 36 days actually on the road the average was about 110 miles a day. Fast time was not attempted; as the tourists desired to see the country as they went along.

The only accidents to the machinery were the breaking of the stud bolt of the connecting rod, which let the rod go through the cover of the crank case, and one axle broken in the center. These necessitated a trip to a blacksmith shop. They had to get the aid of horses only three times, and each time the horses pulled the car out of the water. In all the other tight places the engine was sufficient. Said Dr. Jackson when he reached Chicago: "We have come to the conclusion that we can run our car over any road that a man can take a team of horses and a wagon, providing we can get traction. This trip has never been made, and we are the first people to take a Winton over this road. We were unlucky in choosing this year to make the trip, as the heavy rains in the West made the roads the worst they have been for years. The trip has been a pleasant one, and the only sufferer was the dog, 'Bud,' who was troubled by alkali dust getting into his eyes. He now has a pair of goggles, which help him considerably. The trip has been a success, as the worst part of the roads are now covered. The car is in first-class condition, and I anticipate no trouble from Chicago on to my home in Vermont."

The tourists left Chicago Saturday morning, the route being to Cleveland, where a visit will be made to the Winton Motor Carriage Company, and from there they will go to New York, completing the journey at Burlington, Vt.

Charles B. Shanks, local manager of the Winton Company, said last night: "Dr. Jackson has proven himself a great automobilist. I am glad that he picked the Winton 20-hp. touring car as being the most likely to make a successful finish on the transcontinental journey. We are proud of the doctor and proud of our car. It is a regular model from stock, with no extra attachments.

                                                 These advertisements appeared instantly in the Topics Magazine

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This advertisement was cut from a two page advertisement.

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At the End of the Journey

Snapshots taken by Mr. Crocker on their journey

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San Francisco to New York

The city of New York was yet enjoying its soundest hour of Sunday morning sleep when two automobiles, one brand new, the other muddy as a cattle truck, crossed the Harlem river at 4.30 o'clock. The solitary policeman watching the northern entrance to the metropolis was aroused from his semislumbers by a resounding cheer from the leading automobile. Arriving on the New York end of the bridge a halt was called while the occupants of the first car descended and walked back to the second car, waving their dusty caps and still cheering their fellow travelers.

"Welcome to New York, Doctor. Welcome, Crocker. Congratulations, Mrs. Jackson ". From the tonneau of the first car a bundle of American flags was produced to decorate the bonnet, seats and camp outfit slung behind the muddy vehide in the rear of the little procession. Simultaneously a streamer affixed to upright stanchions was fitted to the car in advance. This read: Welcome to New York--FIRST ACROSS THE CONTINENT!

In the first car were Messrs. Harry Fosdick, Halstead and Thwaite, of the Winton Company, and J. P. Holland, of Automobile Topics, acting as escort to DR. H. NELSON JACKSON and MRS. JACKSON, of Burlington, Vt., SEWALL K. CROCKER, of Tacoma, Wash. and BUDD, a bulldog. The first transcontinental trip from the Pacific to the Atlantic had been completed. Dr. Jackson, with Sewall K. Crocker, had performed the feat on a Winton touring car.

How the Party Were Escorted to New York

From Syracuse, N. Y., came the last telegram telling of the arrival of the transcontinental party on the evening of Thursday last. In the meantime Mrs. Jackson had arrived in New York, and was staying at the Holland House awaiting her husband's arrival. On Friday evening a representative of Automobile Topics called at the Holland House, but finding that no wire had been received from the tourists, arranged with Mrs. Jackson to take her the following day to meet her husband on the road. Appreciating the splendid work done by Dr. Jackson in a car of their make, the Winton Company kindly proffered the use of a touring car for Mrs. Jackson's escort, and assigned Mr. Harry Fosdick, their Boston agent, to act as guide owing to his perfect familiarity with the roads leading from New York to Albany, by which the travelers must probably return. From the New York station of the company Messrs. Halstead and Thwaite were deputed to take charge of the car.

New York, from the Holland House to the Bronx, was astir with automobiles, headed for the big race meeting at Yonkers, as the expedition of discovery sped northward. Two points on the road had been selected as offering the best chances for a meeting. These were the road above Yonkers, and again above Tarry town. At either spot it was deemed certain that a meeting could not be avoided, if only the Doctor's car had succeeded in getting so far.

In order to make the chances of a meeting at Yonkers more probable it was decided to defer luncheon until that place was reached. "The Frenchman's," a restaurant on the high road, offered good facilities alike for a decent meal and to keep a sharp lookout on passing automobiles. But though lunch hour was protracted beyond the patience of the explorers, and a visit made to the telephone office tapped the stations along the road ahead for news, nothing was learned at this point of an approaching car.

"Push on to Tarrytown!" was the order from the guide of the party, Mr. Fosdick, after consultation, of course, with Mrs. Jackson as to her wishes. The scene of Raymond's famous encounter with a street car was passed at a speed that the Bailey law never contemplated coincident with signboards admonitory to automobilists;   but the party of exploration had no eyes for signboards, nor yet for the glorious scenery which a bright July sun made even more enchanting. Spinning along for all she was worth, the brand-new Winton car grew fretful at times, her impatient motor racing ahead of the clutch, still unused to being driven at high speed

An incident on the road brought home to the party the purpose of their mission, and at the same time was accepted as an omen for its success. Approaching, at a spot where the road scarcely permitted two vehicles to pass each other, was seen a farmer's buggy, the farmer's wife and child seated beside him. The automobile came to a dead stop at some distance when the woman and child were seen alighting from the wagon. Then the farmer got down too, and stood at his horse's head, after he had backed out of the roadway as far as possible. As the machine drove slowly past it was noticed that the farmer had his right arm in a sling, and was, therefore, only able to handle the horse with difficulty.

"Thank you very much," said the farmer's wife, as the machine crawled past. "My husband has broken his arm, you see, so he wasn't sure he could hold the horse," she explained, half apologetically, for the sturdy, good-looking fellow "All right, ma'am; hope he'll soon get better," was the reply sung out at the same time, everyone in the car feeling that for a moment at least a husband with a broken arm, even, was an object of wistful sympathy from one of the exploring party.

At Tarrytown the road makes a sharp detour down grade to allow a visit to the telephone office. Just as Fosdick, who, among other responsibilities, had been saddled with the duty of telephonist of the expedition, was alighting, the choo-choo of an approaching machine became audible. It was a Winton. A halt of a few minutes brought the machine into view, but instead of the travel-stained car which photos in last week's issue of Automobile Topics had made familiar as the continental pathfinder, it was an ordinary car, with two ladies in the tonneau. Inquiries at the telephone failed to elicit any news either up or down the iine. So the word was passed to push ahead again, trusting that the single road north might yet yield the much wished for encounter.

Dodging Nelson Hall

Nothing in the shape of news transpired till the fork in the roads at Nelson Hill was reached. Here the first real dilemma had to be faced. Would the Doctor take the road across the hill, which, according to the map, is still the recognized high road, or would he have the good fortune to select the road under the hill which the endurance run of the Automobile Club two years ago had called into existence?

"Let us risk the easier one, and make inquiries at the other end if an automobile has passed," was the suggestion of the guide, to which Mrs. Jackson, as commander-in-chief of the expedition, assented. So around the road under the hill the machine was sent along at top speed. Peekskill was the next stopping place. Here, again, the telephone was called into requisition, and messages sent as far north as Poughkeepsie and south to the Holland House all brought back the same negative replies. Feeling that some news from the Doctor must surely arrive at the Holland House before nightit was now growing duska message was left at that hostelry asking that any telegrams or telephone messages for Mrs. Jackson be repeated to an address at Poughkeepsie. Curiously enough, as was afterward learned, Dr. Jackson himself telephoned to the Holland House a few minutes later, and then learned for the first time that his wife had already left for Poughkeepsie to meet him. As his message was sent after leaving that place, and as he supposed that she must have taken the train, his enthusiastic desire to complete the trip before the week-end was somewhat dampened by the tidings.

It was close upon nine o'clock in the evening when the expedition of discovery reached Fishkill-on-the-Hudson. For some few hundred yards previous the broad tracks of an automobile tire had been plainly discernible in the soft road, and many a halt was made to ascertain from pedestrians if they had seen the machine. At a blacksmith shop, at the end of the village street, a group of men gave the first reliable information of the machine which had passed. It also was a Winton, but luckily for its identification it carried as passengers two ladies, probably the same machine which had been met at Tarrytown.

The order to light up before quitting this village brought home to the party another and unforeseen difficulty. The supply of gasolene and lubricating oil was running low. There had been no expectation of a run beyond Yonkers, and here it wai something like a dozen miles to Poughkeepsie, where the first depot for a fresh supply was available. Just as the prospect of a dreary ride through the dark wooded roads beyond Fishkill had been accepted as the inevitable, a group was espied near the sidewalk

at the far end of the village. A solitary headlight close to the ground, and the figure of a man lying on his back under the vehicle, left no doubt as to the character. It was an automobile, stopped for some temporary repairs. On nearer approach a glimpse of the low maroon hood gave further evidence of identity. It was a Winton.

The prone figure stood upright for a moment, revealing in the flickering light features bronzed almost to a coppery hue, surmounted by a pair of dusty goggles, worn over a light-brown head. An instant later Mrs. Jackson had recognized the figure, and almost as she whispered his name, half unconsciously, a resounding cheer went up from the exploring party.

"Hello, Doctor! Hello, Doctor! Hip! hip! hurrah! hurrah!"

The villagers of Fishkill, gazing at what they regarded as an ordinary breakdown of an automobile, looked around dazed at the frantic greetings of the new arrivals. Hastily the new Winton was hurried to the side of the wayfarer. A half dozen eager hands fumbled with the fastenings of the tonneau door, while outstretched arms offered assistance to Mrs. Jackson to alight; and a moment later the lady herself was clasped in the grimy arms of the stalwart six-footer.

The lost had been found, and for the remainder of the journey the mudcovered machine had still another occupant. Budd, the bulldog, heretofore the supercargo in the transcontinental, seemed hardly less pleased than his master to meet the mistress of whom he must have heard so much in the prairie camps. He wagged his tail joyfully at the introduction, and proceeded forthwith to prepare to chew up a Fishkill poodle which had ventured within smelling distance of the machine.

"Certainly we'll push on to New York to-night!" was the injunction of Dr. Jackson as soon as congratulations had been exchanged, and the willing assistance of the Winton experts had completed the slight repairs which Crocker was yet fixing under the car.

While Mr. Holland was telephoning news of the meeting to the New York Herald, to be cabled to Europe, that personal friends of the Doctor might learn of the success of the trip, Mr. Fosdick went about finding supper, for which everybody was good and ready. The only restaurant in town was able to furnish but one menu, poached eggs on toast. Still there was an abundance of good sauce, in the way of hearty appetites, and when the little supper party broke up the supply of poached eggs, toast and cold tea had been exhausted.

Gasolene Runs Out

Before starting on the return journey a supply of gasolene was obtained from the Doctor's car; rather a curious proceeding, but none the less welcome to the explorers. Equally fortunate was it that among the latter party was one who knew the road so well as Harry Fosdick. Traveling at midnight through a densely wooded country is not the most fascinating of pleasures, especially where you have forgotten to take a headlight along, and the road itself has a knack of forking every few miles, the wrong fork being usually along a road where the sides drop precipitously to the railroad track and the Hudson river banks a hundred feet below. Luckily, however, the headlight of the Doctor's car was a trusty Autolyte, whose rays shone out on either side of the pilot car ahead and served in many a doubtful moment to reveal the infallible finger post.

At Peekskill, on the return journey, a telephone message from the Herald was awaiting the party, asking the probable hour of their arrival in New York. It was then on the stroke of midnight, and judging from the pace at which the return thus far had been made, Herald Square should have been reached by three o'clock or thereabouts. But just as the word was given to start up, a flattened tire was discovered, and it was a matter of another wait to fix up matters. At this point the management of the Raleigh Hotel extended a courtesy which was most acceptable. The only light in front of the hotel was an electric light, taking current from the hotel power. The hotel engineer, who was in the act of cutting off the power, heard of the trouble and generously deferred his bedtime to allow the light needed for the work.

Many little incidents on the return trip offset the weariness, not to say hunger, which otherwise would have made the journey far from pleasant. First of all was the behavior of the mud-covered car. No matter how steep the grade, occasioning spasmodic halts by the new car, the veteran plugged close behind, its engine throbbing rhythmically as a sewing machine. Or again, when the supply of gasolene was once more exhausted, the improvised tank slung beneath the old car was still capable of the drain.

A Midnight Halt in the Wood

A halt in the woods to repair a tire valve brought home to the tired party a realization of their situation. Gathered around the wheel of the car, the experts busied themselves by the light of the kerosene head lamps. Budd, the bulldog, seeing the chance of a respite from the throbbing of the car, jumped to the ground, and in a moment was dead asleep stretched on the cool road. The hooting of owls in the woods nearby, and the baying of a distant house dog, emphasized the midnight silence, while Dr. Jackson in his grimy black silk shirt thumbed eagerly a copy of Automobile Topics giving the first illustrated story of his trip which he had seen. A passing Albany boat, shooting out long beams from its searchlight, illumined the tree tops even to the summit of the hills, or flashed a broad expanse over the shimmering river, or again turned the full force of its rays in a blinding flash upon the solitary workers by the roadside, silhouetting the moving figures in monstrous shadows which lost themselves in the density of the woods. It was an impressive, not to say awe-inspiring scene, and one that will long remain as a pleasant memory.

Budd Is Perplexed

Budd, the bulldog, who, since his interrupted exploit of chewing up a venturesome cur at Fishkill, had been somewhat overlooked, caused no little amusement later on the road. Rudely awakened from his nap when it came time to be on the go again, he leaped into the front car and was soon snuggled under the feet of Mr. Thwaite, sitting next to the driver. Further down the road the second car overtook the leader, and Dr. Jackson called to the dog: "Buddy! Buddy!" The dog, hearing its master's voice, looked up sharply, then turned lazily to gaze up into the faces of the men on the car in which he was riding. The surroundings evidently puzzled him. Half dazed, like a man aroused from a deep sleep, the poor animal seemed at a loss to understand when the transfer had been made, or how it happened that there were two cars, he in one and his owner in the other. At the first opportunity he solved the problem by jumping down and making for the car which had been his bed so often for the month past.

New York was painfully asleep as the party, all dead tired out, crossed Harlem river when the steeple clocks were chiming half-past four. The last flicker of animation was when, the Rubicon crossed, American flags were produced, and a miniature parade formed for the benefit of milkmen on their rounds, or overnight stragglers and policemen awaiting daybreak.

A halt at the Herald office for the Sunday paper, which was eagerly scanned till every line of the story telephoned from Fishkill had been absorbed, a turn down Fifth Avenue, where the Holland House was reached, a good-bye all around, and a final escorting of the mud-covered car to the Winton station at 58th Street, and the trip across the continent was ended


This was the story of the first trip across the continent. I was not designed for speed, but as on see if it coild be humanly possible to do so. A first trip is something that can never be duplicated. It was done from a car that was bought as stock from a local dealer and preparaton was only four days before starting. The Winton company had no idea what Dr. Jackson was trying to do and was using his car until they were well into their trip.


Oldsmobile's Attempt to Beat the Time of the First Crossing

A little later with a special built car and weeks of preparation, the Oldsmobile Motor Works decided that they would also duplicate the transcontinetal trip but it was designed for speed and promotion of the Oldsmobile. With much fanfare, they were faster by two days. This was also a great feat, but one that could and was broken for many years to come

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. Arrival at City Hall at New York City, No one was there to greet them


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The next day leaving tthe city hall with thousands of on-lookers

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They had finished their journey and it also was a great feat, but their race had no bragging rights against a leasurely trip that was made earlier, but they milked it for all it was worth.


By 1903, the public was demanding cars for family touring. The industry with its new models with a tonneau. The tonneau is simply a seat added to the back and could be permanently attached or removeable as needed. With this additional seat as standard equipment, an entire family could ride together. At first, the entrance was by a small door in the rear that could be let down to become a step and raised to form a seat. These models were called rear entrance tonneaus. side entrance tonneaus appeared on the 1905 models. They eithehad a door or space for the passengers to enter at the side of the vehicles. Now running boards were added to aid the entrance into the vehicle. The tonneau that was removeable returned the car to a runabout. We rode in coupes, our parents in roadsters, and our grandparents in runabouts.

Tourism soon became the factor in all of our modern roads going from ruts in the country to the interstate system as we know it now. There was a huge outcry for good roads and committes from every state had one. They were a powerful voice and because they were hotels, began to cater to the automobilist and garages with service stations soon were being built in large cities along the routes.

Automobile clubs in the country began to what they call a run to a certain location and back. The members would gather at their club house and with great fanfare, they were off. It was a tremendous experience for thes members to now be able to visit parts of our country that they only had been able to read about. In my estimation, the run of the Chicago automobile club in 1903 to Mamouth Cave, KY, had to be the hardest one to complete in the history of these runs. ( I was born and raised 50 miles from Mamouth Cave in the heart of these mountains and I can honestly say that as of this date, going over some of these roads can make the hair raise on the back of ones head and make one believe in prayer. Mail was delivered by mules as late as 1950's Some roads are still only one car wide and you meet another vehicle, one or the other has to back to a wide spot for passing.)



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The members of the Chicago Automobile Club who started on a 1.000 mile club run on Thursday. June 25. met with many difficulties early in their trip, and quite a number dropped out before reaching Indianapolis. The tourists spent Thursday night at Cedar Point Hotel, Cedar Lake, and left that place at 7 .-30 the next morning. They expected to take dinner at Rensselaer. The weather was delightful, but the roads were heavy. A great deal of sand was encountered, and the run was made by easy stages. There were a number of small accidents, and delays were caused by punctured tires and other mishaps. The party took dinner at a farm house just north of Rensselaer.

On resuming the run, the Chicagoans went direct to Lafayette, changing their route so as to parallel the Monon Railroad. The intention to detour by way of Delphi was abandoned. The party was much later in reaching Lafayette than was expected, arriving only at 11 p. m. After the cars were put up the gentlemen of the party proceeded to the Lafayette Automobile Club, where they were met by a delegation of the Indianapolis Automobile Club. This delegation comprised five cars and fifteen people, including Mayor Bookwalter, of Indianapolis, and most of them arrived about 4 p. m. A buffet luncheon was served at the club and Mayor Samples and other city officials had been invited to meet the representatives of the two automobile clubs.

Four of the machines arrived at Indianapolis on Saturday, June 27, and the tourists were given a dinner at the Columbia Club in the evening. The party arriving consisted of V. R. Smith and wife, J. William Thorson, A. Scott Ormsby and wife, John E. Fry, F. H. Davis, J. B. Burdette and wife, and J. E. Stevens and wife. No accidents were encountered between Lafayette and Indianapolis, but the tires on the machine of J. B. Burdette suffered many punctures and needed renewal. Five machines with fifteen persons arrived at Richmond at 5 p. m. on June 30, two days behind schedule, owing to bad roads and bad tires. Four of these machines passed through Cincinnati on July 1 at noon and were delayed another half day owing to Burdette's tires. From Cincinnati the tourists went up the Ohio River by boat to Maysville, Ky., and intended to continue their trip from that town, going first to Lexington on Thursday morning. The going encountered between Richmond and Cincinnati was the best on the trip, as the roads were in good shape. The members of the party are enjoying the trip and have been very courteously treated along the road.

A party of local automobilists left Cincinnati at 10 a. m. on June 28 and arrived at Richmond at 5:30 p. m.. where they met the Chicago automobilists. When members of the Chicago Automobile Club decided to make a club tour to the Mammoth Cave in Kentucky and back they evidently formed a project fraught with greater difficulties than they thought. The idea, broached during the winter months, was received with enthusiasm by the club, a considerable number of members agreeing to participate. The difficulties to be encountered, however, seem to have been foreseen by some of the would be tourists, for quite a number dropped out at the last moment, and instead of twentyfive, as expected, only twelve cars started.

The "dropping out" continued after the start, and by the time Mammoth Cave was reached only two cars remained in the run. The two chief causes of trouble are reported to have been "bad roads and bad tires." As the rule was observed that whenever repairs were necessary on any one of the cars all the others stopped until it was again ready to proceed, it is not difficult to see why the schedule could not be maintained. Another cause of delay and failure is undoubtedly traceable to the fact that private owners have not the same incentive to keep in the run to the finish as manufacturers have. Although club tours of this kind would greatly benefit the industry and prove an educator to the participants, it is hardly likely that they will ever become popular, at least not if the rule that all stop whenever one of the machines goes wrong is to be retained. The Mammoth Cave run was also handicapped by the fact that the event occurred in the midst of the hot season. The prospect of having to interchange or repair a 4 inch pneumatic on a shadowless prairie.

Chicago-Mammoth Cave Tourists Home Again.

Another Report on the tour

By Dr. Frank H. Davis.

While the wind howled and the snowflakes chased each other merrily on the lake front last winter, a party of Chicago automobilists sitting before the cheery grate fires, in the spacious parlors of their local club, centred their conversation on the subject of touring. It was decided that this should be the banner year of the club's existence, and that pressure should be brought to bear on the runs and tours committee to come forth with suitable proposals. The committee went into session, and when they emerged from the "blue haze" a book of runs and tours was presented. The haze had been so deep over their plans that they had serenely mapped out a 1.500 mile tour to Mammoth Cave, Kentucky.   "Well," said the club, "after all it might not be impossible"; and upon still further meditation, "say, that is ideal; we will surely break away from this everlasting hindrance of business and take that inyes we will surely go; it's set (fortunately) a long time ahead, and we can make our plans accordinglywe will go."

By this time the committee began to believe in it themselves, and said this must go now. So, with the aid of a high salaried attorney, an ironclad agreement or compact, was drawn up, to the effect that the signer bind himself to go or forfeit all his earthly belongings, his citizenship, in fact his very club membership. And like the farmer in Will Carleton's lightning rod story they (sixty-six) signed it.The month of brides and roses was ushered in in all its glory. The rain ceased, the skies were blue. Committees from different automobile clubs of the cities through which we were to pass wrote, telegraphed and bade us cordial welcome to their cities.

The signers stood firmwe will go, said they. June 1 came; more committees, more letters of inquiry. We will go, lisped the signers, as far as we can, but lo! only a remnant spoke now, for the body had fled. And then, with glittering brass, fluttering of flags, happy but doubtful faces, and the merry godspeed of less bold friends. thirty-six people, in all makes and styles of machines, drew slowly southward, with Cedar Lake, Ind., 50 miles away, for the first objective point, where in the evening a grand reception and ball to which the general automobile public had been invited, was to be given.

Stop now and think what it means to plan in detail such a tour. How many will actually go? How far will they want to go in a day? What is the best route for each day? What the condition of the road? How long would such a number be delayed each day by accidents? What kind of hotels will we find at the end of each day, fit for tired but happy mortals, etc.? These questions must be solved (or guessed at) by the answers to a thousand letters of inquiry to local automobilists, liverymen and even postmasters along the proposed route.

Cedar Lake was reached with some little sand difficulties. It seemed to me a fairly good road, and a merry party we were, but somehow many seemed to weakenthey began to discuss what might happen should they get farther from home. In most cases the machines stood up well, but the drivers lost courage, in spite of the fact that a great many club delegates in a touring car were waiting to escort us to their home club in Indianapolis. Many faint hearts turned back, and when the "great Chicago party" lined up for the further trip we found all out but three touring cars, a Winton, occupied by A. Scott Ormsby and wife, Dr. Frank H. Davis and C. Trip; a Darracq, carrying J. B. Burdette and wife and C. E. Stevens and wife, and a Toledo, with I. M. Smith, wife and son.

Lafayette was reached after some more difficulties, as the sand was deep in places and required more power than Mr. Smith's car could show. The French car, being narrow tread, also required the combined strength of the "bunch" to lift it up the hills. Then, at a most trying time, the battery gave out on the Toledo. Later on the pump chain got lost and you could light a cigar in the engine before it quit, thereby showing the trouble. Then a tire became tired and laid down to rest, all of which delayed the game, but willing hands set all things right and we were happy until the French car's clutch began to slip; but agile Burdette soon put it right alone and didn't call for help until a puncture was recorded and a new inner tube required.

At Lafayette a company of about thirty more members of the Indianapolis Automobile Club, including Mayor Bookwalter, had arrived to greet us and bear us on. Wealthy, beautiful little Lafayette opened her large club to usshe is not yet the proud possessor of an automobile club and gave us the best in the land. Next morning on to Indianapolis we went, fifty strong, and a merry, jolly party it was. Our course was smooth, but tortuous, and we had to run 115 miles to advance 72 as the crow flies. The natives had learned of the coming of the "devil wagons" and turned out in gala attire, lining the roads and swarming the town to "see 'em." Only one dangerous appearing accident occurred that day. the first machine scaring a team of mules attached to a wheel cultivator. They were in the road, headed toward the following automobilists, who were some little distance behind the pace maker, and started on a man on a dead run toward us. However, one of the gentlemen of the imperilled party succeeded in turning them into the fence until he could grasp the bridle.

Nothing further of note occurred, except the bursting of tires. Tires, tireswhy can they not be made stronger? Fortunately we had two or three casings and as many inner tubes and were therefore not delayed long. However, just as we were about to enter Indianapolis in state another French tire burst and, Mr. Burdette being unable to get another, we were delayed for two days in that city while a rubber tire company repaired it, but it gave us a chance to see Indianapolis thoroughlyand it is well worth the time.

Charles W. Gray, president of the C. A. C, had been one of the most enthusiastic signers of the touring agreement, and his non-appearance at the start had been a great surprise; now, only a few hours late, his Peerless car dashed up to the hotel, and he, with Mrs. Gray, their two boys and his chauffeur, alighted, covered with dust, having gained nearly a day in an almost straightaway run from Chicago, having left more than a day behind us, on account of urgent business. We were now a party of fifteen, having also been joined by J. Walter Scott and wife (Northern).

Escorted by a delegation from Richmond and with club colors flying, we sped along over a most beautiful road, and arrived on time, with no accident except the bursting of a bad tire casing on the Winton. During the next day's run to Cincinnati there was quite a number of incidents, however, as another tire case burst on the Winton. two inner tubes had to be replaced on Gray's Peerless, one on Burdette's Darracq, and the gasoline tank sprung a leak on the Northern.

We had been informed at home that there would be no chance for automobiling in Cincinnati, on account of the steep hills, so, having arrived at noon and being compelled to wait over until the next day, while Burdette could get a new casing from New York, Gray, with five people in his Peerless, started out with a guide to "see." We found some rather steep hills, but mounted them so easily that we asked for something harder. We found it in a street so steep that all traffic had been abandoned there. The cobblestone paving was in very bad shape, some of the cohbles having rolled to the bottom, and we were amazed to find that the car climbed it without a halt. At the top some photos were taken.

The next day's run to Lexington was through the most beautiful scenery I have ever witnessed from an automobile. As the crow flies the distance is 89 miles, but as the road goes (by cyclometer) it is 135. We arrived at our hotel at 5 130 p. m., after a half dozen stops for replacing inner tubes and casings. We did not encounter a single hill that was not easily taken, nor have an accident of any kind to any other part of any car. So far no runaway or serious horse accident of any kind had occurred.

Lexington is another city of hills, and the smooth and somewhat level pikes on toward High Bridge reminded us of "old Illinois." For a short time only, however photographed, and in consequence arrived at Bardstown twenty-four hours still further behind the schedule.

The next morning found us starting on the last lap of the tour (99 miles by cyclometer). As we had been informed beforehand that at least 50 miles of the road was impassable, we had our courage screwed up to the last notch. We were now but a party of two carsOrmsby's Winton and Gray's Peerlessall others having dropped out at different points along the road. This road passes through a desolate, barren part of the country, full of steep hills, huge rocks and red worthless sandan ideal spot for the numerous illicit stills which, according to the best authority, always exist here. The country is almost pauperized and cannot afford to repair this road, which was at one period before the war a noted turnpike, well graded and built of large, irregular, natural stone, and filled in with smaller ones and sand, but through long disuse, washouts, and it would seem human attempts to wreck iteverybody ordinarily travels horsebackthe road is certainly the opposite of the automobilist's ideal, and how we got over it absolutely without accident would be difficult to comprehend if I could accurately describe its awfulness. Blisters on the hands of the chauffeurs at the end of the day from the vigorous, constant manipulation of brakes and clutch speak more than volumes of verbal description. The natives here are the "poor white trash," living in dense ignorance and poverty, with large, shifty eyes that look at you in malice or wonder from a point of vantage on a rock or tree, or boldly from the roadside,indescribable and well worth the effort of the trip (were there no other incentive). Echo Riverforever will I hear that echo. Truly, the world is great and the work of the Master supreme. Why do people live on and on, content with the stuffy odors and stiff unuaturalness of a great city, or for a "change" go to the fashionable watering places where unnaturalness is even more pronounced, when nature in her beauty is thus so complete.

We arrived at Mammoth Cave Hotel at 10 p. m., having stopped two hours en route for meals, which had to be borrowed and cooked while we waited, and having gone 10 miles out of our way at the start by the misdirection of a native. The performance of the cars on this trip entirely convinced us that the automobile has passed the "toy" period and is a vehicle sturdy, stanch and entirely dependable for trips of pleasure or business. It affords an easy, graceful and intensely interesting mode of travel, and especially so to the lover of nature and overworked business man, instantly and completely banishing all care and affording such boyish delights as a "river swim" or "one old cat"

Mammoth Cave, the wonderful, is the same yesterday, today and forever, the grandest of awe inspiring works of nature,'for then the Kentucky River Valley burst upon us with an awe inspiring scenic splendor. I have ridden horseback through the Rockies, bicycled in the Adirondacks and climbed in the Alps, but never have I seen a grander sight than when we approached this valley by the winding white roads curving from cliff to cliff through dense foliage, then suddenly emerging in the open. At Danville an inner tube of the Winton car exploded while turning a corner, causing the car to swing into a telegraph pole, seriously bending both the rear axle and frame. We were able, however, to get the car to a nearby blacksmith's shop, and although the smith had never before seen a touring car, and although the entire axle truss had to be removed, by our aid and instruction he was able to repair the damage within a few hours. We also were delayed by tires for which we had telegraphed. The countryside for miles about the Mammoth Cave seemed to know instantly of our arrival and flocked in, surrounding our machines, viewing them in wonder and amazement.

At the Cave we learned that by making a 40 mile detour to the south we would find a more level country and somewhat better roads. So, after a glorious day at the Cave. we made a start at 6 a. m., with the intention of making a two days' schedule run and reaching Louisville in the evening. During this day's run we were informed by a number of natives, mostly colored, that touring cars had never before passed through that region. We arrived at Bardstown for supper, without incident, except some trouble with one of the intake valves on the Peerless, which had to be replaced with a new one, carried with the spare parts. A mishap also occurred to one of the steering knuckles of this car. In trying to avoid a deep hole in the road, a loose stone caught the front wheel and turned it sharply into a tree, bending the knuckle to such an extent that it had to be straightened on a stone before we could proceed.

At Bardstown a champagne supper was given us, which delayed us for three hours, but at 10 p. m. we left the city, over a most beautiful road. Now, strange to be related, that although during the entire 250 miles' trip from Bardstown to the Cave and back, over the roughest, sharp rock road imaginable, and part of the way over dried river bottom of stone pilesa trip the natives strongly advised against and offered bets of three to one that we could not makethe tires gave us absolutely no trouble, yet on this smooth turnpike an outer casing exploded without warning, and within fifteen minutes after the repair had been made, and while we were sailing serenely onward again, an inner tube of another tire exploded. Then the big French acetylene lamps refused to work and we were again delayed.

Our troubles being over, and being exhausted from the jolts and strenuous work of a long day's tripthe champagne had nothing to do with iteverybody fell asleep, including the "men at the wheel," who only kept the car in the centre of the broad, white road by sheer instinct and occasional periods of consciousness, caused by the slowing down of the Winton, owing to the throttle spring forcing up the foot button, which was now relaxed, the car thereby slowing down of itself, as if to join us in our dreamy siesta. This was a queer experience and a queer sensation. The scenery in these quiet, moonlit, shimmering valleys and hills was indescribable in its loveliness, and must be seen to be appreciated. The broad white ribbon road, unfurling forever with new scenes, seemed to end st the top of each hill, until we approached, when it laughingly beckoned us on as it darted ahead into the moonlight.

Dust begrimed and weary we arrived at our hotel at 3 o'clock a. m., and glad we were to see it. The bejewelled night clerk of the splendid hostelry "gazed upon us with a stony stare." "We have nothing," said he. As the ladies of the party appeared, a new light seemed to dawn upon him, and he said: "Waitare you automobilists?I thoughtI thoughtI don't know but that we have a few rooms leftyes, I'm sure we haveO yes, we are glad to see you." That morning at 10 a. m. we were up again and spent until 3 p. m. in seeing Louisville, when we again "took to the road."

We had "listed" the road as being anything but good driving for about half way to Indianapolis, from the best information we could get, and we therefore decided to drive as far into the country as opportunity offered, trusting to luck to find a suitable lodging place. We succeeded in penetrating as far as Sottsburg, where we found a very cosy little hotel with large, airy, clean rooms and good meals.

The next day we easily drove to Logansport, thus cutting another day from the schedule, and were surprised to find the roads very good. We stopped over at Indianapolis long enough for some slight adjustment to the cars and to take on gasoline and lubricating oil, and incidentally to pick up Mr. Burdette's party, which had taken the train from Bardstown to the Cave and returned in time to get their car and proceed leisurely to this point. No other incidents.

Automobile Racing

The first race was from Chicago to Evansville in November , 1896, which has been full documente by a link on the Home Page. The following races is described for their significience to the industry.

The First London to Brighton Race

As there has been considerable controversy in the English motor press over the movements of the two Duryea wagons in the London-Brighton run, and their relative position at the finish, the editor sought an inteiview with Mr. J. Frank Duryea, who had charge of the leading vehicle, and asked him for an account of his part in the outing. Mr. Duryea stated that they started near the last, but made better headway through the crowded London streits than the other vehicles, owing to the superior lightness and control oi their vehicle.

At Brixton, four miles from the Thames River, he began to push his wagon, until at Reigate, 22 milts out, he bad passed all the other vehicles. Here be halted, according to the official programme, took luncheon and waited for the other excursionists. The several Bol lée Iricycles, which had left London before him, came up soon after and passed on immediately toward Brighton, one of them reaching that place before him. After stopping for over an hour at Reigate Mr. Duryea continued on his journey, not, however, until the pilot carriage of President Lawson had led the way.

Rain came on almost immediately, rendering the going much heavier for him than it had been for the Bouées, who passed on eaily enough to escape it. As it was two of the Bollée machines came to grief, one being completely knocked out, and the other being towed into Brighton by horse-power. Both the Duryea wagons reached Brighton, the second being somewhat retarded as compared with the first, by the fact that its passenger was a man weighing about 250 pounds. Mr. Duryea speaks enthusiastically of English roads. He says he could as easily make 20 to 25 miles an hour there as 15 there. He saw nothing during his stay abroad which he believes to be the equal of their latest wagon in speed, control and general utility. The Duryea Company now has four wagons in England.

Gold Medal for the Duryea

The Duryea Motor Wagon Company have received from the Motor Car Club, of London, a gold medal, in recognition of their splendid performance in the London-Brighton tour, on Nov. 14

The Duryea's Representative Flings Down the Gauntlet.

The promoter of the Duryea patents in England is so well assured that the wagon he represents is able to cope with any the Motor Car Club may be exploiting that he has sent a challenge to the secretary of the club, offering to pit the Duiyea wagon against any vehicle the club may control, in a contest between London and Glasgow and return, the decision to be rendered not on speed, but on grounds of general utility in road service.

Stakes of £5,000 were to be posted by each side, the whole to go to the winner. Up to the present, according to the best information, the challenge has not been accepted


Strictly Speed Racing

The second race on record was held in Providence, RI, in September, 1896 . 50,000 people watched this race and came to view the motor carriages

Copied from the September, 1896 Issue Horseless Age Magazine

The Providence Race.

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Advertisement of the Race

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Lineup for the start of the race

The motor carriage races advertised to take place Sept. 7th to11h inclusive, at Narragansett Park, Providence, R. I., in connection with the annual Rhode Island State Fair, commenced on schedule time, but the program was so seriously interfered with by two days of violent storms that only three days of the five proposed were run.with the result being a victory for the electric carriage.

Out of the twelve entries only eight materialized. They were the Duryea Motor Wagon Co., J Frank Duryea, George Henry Hewitt, Fiske Warren, George H. Morrill, Jr., William M. Ashley & Son, Riker Electric Motor Co., and the Electric Carriage & Wagon Co. The last two were electric vehicles, the first being an entirely new one, and the second the "Electrobat," which received the gold medal at Chicago last fall. All the remaining wagons were of the Duryea model, one being entered by the Duryea company and the rest by private purchasers.

The electric carriages arrived several days before the opening of the fair, whereupon their owners began a search for charging facilities on the grounds. No provision for current having been made by the management, arrangements had to be made with a local electric light company, and the only place where the proper connections could be made was a cow shed some distance from the main entrance. Here the electric carriages took their stand, while the gasolene contingent occupied a number of stalls nearly half a mile away. The separation of the vehicles caused great inconvenience to the hundreds who came with the single object of seeing the motor carriages. No space in any of the buildings had been fitted up for an exhibition and no exhibition of any kind was held, the management claiming that separate entry was required in order to qualify for the exhibition, and that the requisite number of entries had not been received. Consequently no prizes were distributed under this head.

On Monday, Sept. 7th, about 5.30 p. m., the carriages were called upon the track and numbers were assigned to them, as is customary in horse racing. Each carriage being required to carry a weight of at least 165 pounds in addition to the driver all preferred to take this in the form of an extra passenger, who was either an employee or friend of the owner, or some well-known student of the subject. The Riker carriage had the pole, the vehicle of the Electric Carriage & Wagon Company secured next position, and the gasolene wagons filled out the row.

All the contestants were sent back some distance behind the post for the start and came up in good order. At the word the electric carriages shot ahead, followed by the entry of the Duryea Motor Wagon Company. The other Duryea wagons were road wagons not geared for high speed, and they fell back from the start. Throughout the five-mile dash the electric carriages gradually increased their lead, finishing close together, the Riker carriage first. The first Duryea wagon was about three-quarters of a mile behind the winners.

A very strong wind was blowing, and the track, while fast for horses, was too rough and lumpy in parts for motor carriages. The time of the four leading vehicles for the first heat was as follows: Riker Electric Motor Company 15 min. 1 sec.; Electric Carriage & Wagon Company. .15 min. 14 sec.; Durvea Motor Wagon Company 18 min. 47 sec.; William Ashley & Son 20 min. 59 sec.

As this was the first heat ever run on a track between motor vehicles it is reasonable to suppose that the contestants felt new and strange, and could not do themselves full justiee. On the second day, however, they gained courage, and determined to improve on the time of the previous day. Both electric and gasolene wagons were carefully prepared for the second event. That of the Electric Carriage & Wagon Company received an accession of batteries, and the cells of both the electric wagons were thoroughly saturated with the powerful fluid.

The Riker vehicle again took the pole on account of its victory in the first heat. The Electric Carriage & Wagon Company were given the second position, the Duryea Motor Wagon Company the third, William Ashley & Son the fourth and so on. At the word the Riker vehicle took the lead as on the first day, maintaining it to the finish, closely followed by the Duryea wagon and the wagon of the Electric Carriage & Wagon Company. This heat was closely contested by the three leaders and evoked great enthusiasm from the spectators. The time was a considerable improvement over that of the preceding day:

Riker Electric Motor Company 13m. 6s., Duryea Motor Wagon Company 13 m. 13s. Electric Carriage & Wagon Company 14 m. 33s. William Ashley & Son 16m. 31s. On Wednesday and Thursday a violent northeasterly storm prevailed throughout that section of New England. Rain fell in torrents and the wind played havoc with the shows and with the plans of the management. All races were declared off on these two days, and hundreds of persons who had come from distant parts not touched by the equinoxial gale and could not remain for pleasanter weather, went back disappointed. During the continuance of the storm many showed their interest in the new vehicles by wading through mud and water to the sheds where they were quartered.

On Friday the weather cleared, and by afternoon the track was in good condition. The strong wind which had impeded the racers in the two previous heats had died away, and fast time was predicted. A vast assemblage, estimated at nearly 50.000, had collected in the grand stand and around the track by the time the motor race was called.

Riker took the pole in the third heat; Duryea, second position; the Electric Carriage & Wagon Co., third; Wm. Ashley & Son, fourth; and so on.

The electric carriages dashed off at a two-minute pace, closely followed by the Duryea wagon. A little beyond the half-mile the Duryea wagon was pulling up with the two electrics, when a tire punctured and the wagon gradually lost headway. The Riker carriage maintained its lead until the homestretch was reached, when the other electric spurted ahead and crossed the line a second ahead of its rival. Much bettei time was made by all the entries in this third heat, scarcely one falling below the 15-mile-an-hour limit. The time of the four winners was as follows: Elect ic Carriage & Wagon Company nm. 27s.; Riker Electric Motor Company 11m. 28s.; Duryea Motor Wagon Company 11m. <os.; Wm. Ashley & Son 15m. 47s.

The Riker carriage was conducted by A. L. Riker and C. H. Whiting; the carriage of the Electric Carriage & Wagon Company by Henry B. Morris in the first two heats, and by Mr. Adams in tile third.

The blood of the contestants was now up, and all were bent on smashing records on Saturday, the last day of the fair. It was announced that two heats might possibly be run, but owing to the large number of postponed horse races, which had to be run off, darkness closed on the track before the motors could be called, and the management announced that the three heats already run would constitute the race. There was considerable grumbling among the contestants, and some of the occupants of.the grand stand, when this decision was made known, but no appeal, could be made.

Homeward Bound

The Duryea, wagons went overland to Worcester on the following day, and from there were shipped by train to Springfield. The wagons belonging to Fiske Warren and Geo. H. Morrill, Jr., were both run on their own wheels to the resi dences of their respective owners, the first to Harvard, Mass., and the second to Norwood, Mass. One of the Duryea wagons made the run to Worcester in three hours, a distance of 47 miles by the road.

The electric wagons were shipped to their destinations as soon as possible. The race was conducted by the association under the general rules applied to trotting races, and th'e awards were made upon this basis. The conditions called for a 25-mile race of five heats of five miles each, one on each of the five successive days of the fair. v

As unfavorable weather prevented the completion of more than three heats three-fifths of the purse only was divided, in the following proportions: First money, to the Riker Electric Motor Co., of Brooklyn, N. Y., $900; second, to the Electric Carriage & Wagon Co., Philadelphia, Pa., $450; third, to the Duryea Motor Wagon Co., $270; fourth, to Wm. Ashley & Son, Springfield, Mass., $180. According to the precedent in uncompleted track events two-fifths of their entrance fees were refunded to all contestants net disqualified by failure to attain the required average rate of speed.

Public interest in the motor races in Providence and vicinity was very keen, and quite a number of students of the new method of locomotion came from distant points to witness the trial of speed. The management of the fair state that they feel amply repaid for their venture. The electric carriages weighed from 2,200 to 2,500 pounds in racing trim, including passengers, the heavier of the two being that of the Electric Carriage & Wagon Company. The leading Duryea wagon weighed about 1,200 pounds all on. The fastest mile was covered by the Riker electric carriage, the time being 2.13. It was quite generally commented on by the audience that the electric vehicles made as much or more noise than the gasolene at high speed.

Prof. W. H. Pickering, of Harvard University, acted as Chairman of the Board of Judges, being assisted by Prof. Alonzo Williams, of Brown University; D. M. Thompson, president of the Corliss Steam Engine Company, Richards Howland, editor of the Providence

Editor Horseless Age:

Now, that the Providence races are over, and we have had an opportunity to examine and weigh the results, I think we must conclude that some very valuable information has been obtained. Unlike the Chicago and New York competitions, this was a speed contest pure and simple. Only eight vehicles were entered for competition, and therefore, according to the published rules governing the races, no other points were considered by the judges. The comparison between the electric and gasolene carriages was particularly interesting, and the results were quite different from those obtained at Chicago. No electric carriages were entered in the New York contest. While at Chicago the electric carriages were badly beaten at Providence both of these entered came out with flying colors, distinctly in advance of the best gasolene vehicle.

The reasons for this difference are obvious. In Chicago the race lasted several hours, and the course lay over a rough and very difficult track. In Providence, on the other hand, the race lasted but a few minutes, and the course lay over a hard and perfectly level road. Both vehicles, doubtless, have been much improved since the Chicago race; but were it to be tried over again to-morrow we cannot doubt that the result would be the same.

Another point that seemed to me to be of interest was the comparatively low speeds that were at first obtainedlow, that is, in comparison with what was claimed for the vehicle before the race, and the rapid improvement made in the successive heats. On the first day but four of the vehicles recorded a speed in excess of 15 miles an hour and none reached a speed of 20 miles, although as compared with common roads the course was an excellent one. Later, much better figures were scored, one of the electric carriages completing a mile in 2 m. 23 s., and one of the gasolene carriages accomplishing it in 2 m. 26 s. One of the electric carriages ran the whole five miles at an average speed of 25.2 miles per hour, while the gasolene carriage reached an average speed of 25.0 miles.

Much public interest was manifested in the races, especially upon the second day, when the competition was very close, and it appears certain that for racing as well as for practical purposes the motor vehicle has come to stay. That before long much higher speeds will be obtained upon the track, as soon as it becomes an object to construct vehicles especially for that purpose, also appears reasonably certain. In the mean time the motor vehicle has conclusively demonstrated that under favorable conditions an average speed of 15 miles an hour is perfectly practicable for ordinary purposes of pleasure travel

Ocean-to-Ocean: Car Contest or Race?

Refusal of the Manufactuing Association to Authorize the Race

Manufacturers Place

The first test of the recently organized Manufacturers' Contest Association came Tuesday night, when that body met in New York to consider a number of matters, the most important of which was the New York-Seattle endurance run. By its action in voting not to sanction or in any way endorse the run the committee proved that it was not afraid to takle difficult propositions. The matter had been pretty well discussed in advance, and correspondence with concerns not represented at the meeting was on hand to be of influence in reaching a decision. Chairman Robert Lee Morrell, of the Contest Committe of the A. C. A., which had previously sanctioned the contest, and "Tom" Moore and J. K. Mills, the managers, were also present to give their side of the matter. After hearing them and discussing the matter it was voted to decline to endorse the event, and the following resolution was passed giving the reasons:

First.The entry blanks distributed among the manufacturers state that it is a "race." and as such it cannot but place a premium on speeding in violation of State laws, which is contrary to the position automobile makers have taken with the various State Legislatures.

Second.The rules on the entry blanks, which among other things provide that engines, axles, gears, etc., may be changed twice and only the original frame brought to Seattle, are not for the betterment of motor-car manufacture.

ThirdThe entry blank statement "The first car arriving at Seattle will be declared the winner," presupposes a road race without regard to speed regulations, the prize going to the car whose drivers most consistently and persistently disregard the conditions and laws under which the authorities permit the use of motor cars.

Fourth.Another rule provides that the crew of a car may drive continuously from New York to Seattle, or as nearly so as the endurance of the crew, relaying each other, will permit. The contest would therefore be strung out over a period of hours and days, making it impossib.e to safeguard the highways and the public for the continuous time necessary.

Fifth.The rules as a whole, or the explanation of the race representatives, do no assure the Manufacturers' Contest Association that the contest will advance either the pastime or the industry.

Sixth.The excellent record of the Automobile Club of America in the sport and industry makes it a matter of regret that it should have given its sanction to the rules that are offered for the government of this proposed race.

Although the manufacturers are not opposed to transcontinental contests, they voted that no affair should be supported which is not conducted under rules having due regard for the laws of the various States and the rights of others on the highways


Hoping to capitalize on the excitement and publicity generated by the 1908 New York to Paris Automobile Race , the organizers of the Alaska-Yukon-Pacific Exposition in collaboration with the Seattle Automobile Club planned a great race of their own, an ocean to ocean New York to Seattle outing whose start would coincide with the fairs opening

In response to the refusal of the Manufacturers Contest Association, an industry watchdog, to sanction the event, the Seattle organizers announced that all speed limits would be obeyed. They contended that it was not to be a race, but a "motor contest." No one ever explained the difference!

With their feathers ruffled, the Seattle Automobile Club adopted the rules of the Manufacturers Contest Association that forbade changing major components of the automobile during the face. They also split the contest in two parts, an endurance test for the part of the run to St. Louis and a speed race from St. Louis on. In the East, driving was permitted only during daylight hours for 12-hour stretches at legal speeds between six checkpoints. Late arrivals at the checkpoints were penalized with a 12-hour delay. After St. Louis, there were no checkpoints or speed rules.

M. Robert Guggenheim, a 24-year-old motorcar enthusiast and a wealthy scion of the Guggenheim mining fortune, sponsored the race and was its sole referee. The Guggenheim Trophy and $2,000 in cash were the prizes. Ostensibly, Guggenheim chose to sponsor the race to assist the "good roads" movement, organizations and individuals lobbying nationwide to upgrade the quality of roads for automobiles. Guggenheim hoped for at least 30 entries in the race. He even hired drivers and entered his own car. Fortunately, he didnt have to decide if his Itala obeyed the rules. It dropped out in Wyoming, the day after the winners arrived in Seattle.

For a variety of reasons some of which must be tied to the controversy stirred up by the Manufacturers Contest Association and a disagreement with the Automobile Association of America that sanctioned the race, only five cars started on June 1. Two of them were Henry Fords lightweight and stripped down Model Ts. Guggenheims Itala, an Acme and a Shawmut. The sixth car, a Stearns, started on June 5 and dropped out of the race the same day, only 24 miles from the city limits.The Model T had been launched in 1909 and Ford hoped to capitalize on a win to market his new product. He had one important advantage over the competition. He had a string of dealers across the country who could guide the drivers over the shortest routes and provide pit stops and do repairs whenever needed. " He also had two crews who would do anything to win.The Ford may seem to have been the underdog to these other five cars, except for the Itala which was also a racer, they were specially made as racers and not your family automobile


Changes in Seattle Rules But No Sanction

Despite efforts to secure a reconsideration of the vote by which approval ol the New York-Seattle contest was denied, the Manufacturers' Contest Association, has decided to stand by its decision. With a view of meeting the objections of the committee, the following changes have been made:

Pursuant to the recommendations made by the Manufacturers' Contest Association at their meeting of April 6, Rule 3 governing the change of parts on contesting cars in the Guggenheim New York to Seattle contest has been changed to read as follows:

There will be no observers on the cars. The Technical Committee of the Automobile Club of America will stamp the cars before departure as follows: The side members of the frame, front and rear axles, engine base and cylinders, transmission case and steering gear. The win ning car must bear the stamps on arrival at Seattle. All other parts can be changed at will.

Any contestant, having to replace any of the above parts can continue in the contest and on arrival at Seattle will be awarded a certificate of performance. He will not be eligible for the prizes, however.

In order that there may be no cause for criticism on account of undue speeding and in arder that the contestants may be kept under control and at the same time get adequate rest while the drivers are still soft, the following regulation has been adopted:

Pursuant to Rule I, regarding checking stations, and Rule 7, which deals with the regulation of the contest, it is herewith announced: Contesting cars will be controlled between New York and St. Louisand six twelve-hour control stations will be established at the following points, viz.: Poughkeepsie, Syracuse, Buffalo, Toledo, Chicago and St. Louis. The transcontinental record made by the winning car will be credited with the three days consumed by the control periods.

The accompanying schedule, which has due regard for the speed laws of the various States, has been laid out and no contestant will be allowed to check out of the night control points before the advertised time. Any car which arrives at a control point late will not be allowed to leave until the control period of twelve hours has elapsed.

New York to Poughkeepsie 73, Poughkeepsie to Syra.cuse 207, Syracuse to Buffalo 250, Buffalo to Toledo 296, Toledo to Chicago 244, Chicago to St. Louis 283. Five entries have already been announced and it is known that the con. mittee have eight more in hand. The entrants, however, due to the pernicious activities of politicians have decided not to announce entry in order to avoid unpleasant relations.

The above schedule is a hard one and will test the endurance of the car to the utmost. It is, however, an evidence of good faith that the committee are doing all they can to see that the law is respected. Official notice of the action was given out by Russell A. Field, assistant secretary and treasurer of the Manufacturers' Contest Association, as follows: "The Manufacturers' Contest Association has decided by a mail vote of its General Rules Committee not to re-open the question of the proposed New York Seattle race, against the support of which definite action was taken at the meeting held in New York City on March

Statements Fly About

As the time set for the start of the New York-Seattle contest, June 1, approaches, statements regarding it are appearing with considerable regularity. Two of these possess considerable interest, and one at least has a direct bearing on the rumors that the event will never be held.

Positive assurance to the contrary is forthcoming from the promoters of the contest, who quote Chairman R. L. Morrell, of the Contest Committee of the Automobile Club of America, as saying, when asked as to the result of the letters reported to have been sent by the Manufacturers to the president of the A. C. A., requesting that its santion be withdrawn, that the sanction would not be withdrawn and that the club's position had not been varied; that it would see that- the contest be properly conducted and that the $5,350 in cash prizes, which had been deposited by M. Robert Guggenheim and which was now in the hands of the Automobile Club of America, would be paid to the winners. When asked if the number of entries would have any effect upon the attitude of the club, Mr. Morrell said: "Not the slightest. If the Seattle Automobile Club and the Alaska-Yukon-Pacific were prepared to start only one car on June 1, the club will be ready to carry out its obligations as the sanctioning body." Meanwhile the Manufacturers' Contest Committee came out with a very strong statement, in which allusion was made to the claim that the changes made in the rules for the government of the contest had something to do with the wishes of the committee. The statement, which is headed "M. C. A. Corrects a Mis-Statement," follows: A statement has been issued to the daily press by the promoters of the New York to Seattle contest, specifically stating that the rules of the contest have undergone certain changes "pursuant to the recommendations made by the Manufacturers' Contest Association at their meeting of April 6."

This statement is misleading and with out foundation. The Manufacturers' Contest Association did not hold a meeting on April 6. nor has it officially made any recommendations whatever respecting a change in the rules governing this contest. At its only meeting, held March 30, the members declined, by resolution, to support the Seattle contest for stated reasons. "Nevertheless arrangements are being made for holding the race and entries are coming in, it is stated. The latest entry is that of an Isotta car, the Isotta Import Company announcing that it has practically completed arrangements to start one of its 40 hp. cars fitted with a toy tonneau. The promoters say that 13 entries have been received, 11 of them having paid the entrance fee; and it is expected that 20 cars will face the starter on June 1.

The checking stations are placed about 75 to 100 miles apart and are located at the following points: Poughkeepsie, Albany, Fonda, Syracuse, Buffalo, Toledo, South Bend, Chicago, Bloomington, 111., St. Louis, Centralia, Kansas City, Manhattan, Oakley, Elsworth, Limon, Denver, Cheyenne, Rawlins, Granger, Montpelier, and Pocatello. All these checking stations, except the one at Chicago, are located at . prominent hotels, so that contestants will have no trouble in finding the checking official. The checking system is novel and is aimed to prevent the shipping of the cars by rail and the substitution of drivers along the route. Each contestant on leaving New York will be given a passport which must be vised at each point by the checking official.

Cut from the 1909 Automobile Topics Magazine

From time immemorial thirteen has been an unlucky number, and that is probably the reason the promoters of the Ocean-to-Ocean racewe should say contest hope to add to the number of entries. A publicity notice sent out last week fixed the number in hand at thirteen, and the hope was expressed that it might be still further augmented. Even as it is, however, thirteen is a very respectable number of starters.


A plan was adopted to enforce the rule regidating the speed limit between New York and St. Louis. A representative of the Automobile Club of America will act as pacemaker from city to city and no contestants will D.. ptrmitted to pass his official flag. In event of any mishap to the pacemaking car the pacemaker will be authorized by the club to transfer his flag to the first car arriving at the point where he has been halted. It is expected that the automobile clubs along the route will furnish the pacemaker with cars, and in event of this plan miscarrying the contestants will decide among themselves which car shall be the flag car.

Incidentally John Kane Mills, of the firm of Mills & Moore, announced that he was retiring from that firm, in order to devote his attention to some personal matters. Mr. Moore made the following statement.

"Mr. Mills' withdrawal will in no way effect the conduct of the Ocean to Ocean Contest. While I am very sorry to lose Mr. Mills' association in the firm, the statement that I have frequently made that this contest will start even if it becomes necessary for Mills and I on June 1st to start from the City Hall Square and run to Seattle, goes, so far as I am concerned. I regret it, however, Mills being the better runner, the public will now be deprived of the pleasure of seeing this event, assuming that no cars present themselves on the starting line."

Pathfinders Are off for Seattle

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1909 Thomas Automobile and the Pathfinder' Crew

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The six cars were

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1909 Model T Ford, The Family Car


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Ford No. 1
Both racers were identical
Frank Kulick, Driver
H.B. Harper, Relief
Ford No. 2  Special Built Racer

B.W. Scott, Driver
C.J. Smith, Relief

All cars were suposed to be stock cars

1907 Itala Race Car
Italian Automobile
Gus Lechleitner, Driver
Albert Bellows and F.B. Whitteman, Reliefs
This photo was to give an idea of what the Itala car looked like.

The day before the race, the Itala Company decided that they wanted to have an entry. The Automobile was delivered to site. When Guggenheim saw the car, he bought it entered it into the race


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1909 Stearns Touring
F. B Stearns Co. Cleveland, OH 
Robertt C. Maxwell, Driver
Harry Sohmers, Relief Diver  and Kenneth Majors, Mecanic

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1909 Shawmut Touring
Shawmut Automobile Co. Stoneman, MA
F.A. Pettingell, Driver
C.H Chapin and R.A Messer, Reliefs

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1909 Acme Automobile
Reber Manufacturing Co, Reading, PA.
George Salzman, Driver
Henry Price, Faye R. Sheets, and J.A. Hemstreet, Reliefs

All of Ford's competition had been winners in different races. The Itala had won the Peking to Paris Race in 1907 and the Shawmut had won several endurance races including the non-stop Boston, MA to Bretton Woods, NH and back with a perfect score. In 1908, the Shawmut factory was destroyed by fire an all the cars were destroyed but this one. The owners were depending on the publicity that would be given to the winner would get new investors to keep the company in business, but none was forthcoming. It had to closed down.

The race can best be described by articles submitted almost every day to the New York Times. These are images taken from the New York Times Digital Library and are posted as images and cannot be altered or corrected. I hope that you will gain some knowledge from these articles.

                                                                                                                            The Prize
                                                                                          Sterling Silver $3500.00 Guggenheim Winner's Trophy 

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SYRACUSE, June 2. -- Precisely on schedule time the five cars competing in the New York to Seattle contest for the M. Robert Guggenheim trophy arrived here at 7 o'clock to-night, having made 220 miles in twelve hours. Half of the journey from Poughkeepsie to Syracuse was made on good State roads, and the cars had to have their speed proclivities curbed by John H. Gerrie, the pace
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Henry Ford at the right of the driver welcoming his crew to Seattle

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The winner on display in the Seattle Armory
Notice the huge crowd


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The Shawmut with the Ford in the Armory
See the differeence in the size of the visitor


The Old War Horse by itself. You did yourself proud!
You were robbed of all the glory and glamour that was your due.


Ford had two entries in the race to increase hs odds and there was always help with Ford crews to do maintenance work as needed.
The car following is the real 1909 Model T

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Ford  No. 1 
Group of men and boys from Ellensburg, Washington standing about an automobile that participated in the Great Auto Race of 1909
If you think that the Shawmut looks tired and worn out, Take a look at the Ford No. 1, still not in Seattle.

Few gave the Shawmut a chance, with no factory to provide spare parts. But Pettengill and relief drivers Earle Chapin and Robert Messer, all of Stoneham, stayed neck-and-neck with the Fords for much of the race, as the Acme fell far behind and the Itala dropped out. But, the Shawmut consistently ran into what seemed like rigged obstacles. On June 8 in Glasgow, Mo., the Stoneham car reached the Missouri River moments after the Fords, only to watch as a ferry carried the Model T's across, then shut down for unscheduled maintenance. The Shawmut had to scramble along the eastern bank searching for a railroad bridge to cross.

Undaunted, the Shawmut gained a five-hour lead by June 15, when it arrived at Wyoming's Fort Steele and found the Platte River's wagon bridge washed out. At the nearby railroad crossing, the armed agent for Union Pacific refused to let them onto the bridge without permission from management in Omaha. The Stoneham men, waiting all night and into morning, watched in disbelief as the Fords sped by with permits, having been alerted to quirks throughout the race by its national dealership network. Shawmut lost 17 1/2 hours there, more than the eventual disparity at the finish." Copied from Boston.com.

"After 22 days and a horrible push through deep snow with R.P. Rice, the local Ford dealer and Henry Ford himself working to get the car over Snoqualmie Pass, the Model T No. 2 arrived at the Alaska-Yukon-Pacific Exposition and was heralded as the winner of the race. Bert Scott was at the wheel assisted by mechanic C. J. Smith. Henry Ford initiated a huge marketing scheme trumpeting the victory and assuring the dominance of the American automobile market for his lightweight vehicle for nearly another 20 years." AYP Web site

Because there were no communications possible from the pass, and in anticipation of the Ford may have trouble, it is plausable that R.P. Rice, a Ford Company employee, could have been waiting there to help. There were no cell phones or helicopters standing by for instant help. He did not know exactly when the Fords would arrive and he could have been there for several hours. The Shawmut crew reported that a third man was seen to take the driver's position and drive the car through the pass and then let the original driver take control. If Henry Ford were there, he had to beat the No. 2 car back to Seattle to have been waiting to celebrate its arrival. Does this make sense?

"Racers in a Model T Ford that was in third place at the time describes the June 23 descent from the pass as follows:

"We were on the top of the last difficulty. We had pushed through the snow with less trouble than we had expected. We would be in Seattle by four oclock. When a rock hidden in the mud and snow sprang up to give us one last foul blow. For seven hours we worked on the top of the mountain up among the clouds remedying the trouble that rock had caused. At 5 p.m. [June 23] we were going again. A half mile over the ties of the new "Milwaukee" railroad brought us to the down grade and ninety miles from the finish. The rest was easy"


Copied from History Link Yvonne Prater, Snoqualmie Pass: From Indian Trail to Interstate (Seattle: The Mountaineers, 1981)

Most researchers say that the axle was changed in Idaho, but I would say that it was changed in Rawson, WY. Both Fords broke down a few miles out of Rawsom and had to be towed back to Rawsom and spent four hours for repairs. The NO. 2 Ford was in bad shape. This is the only checkpoint that I could find where a significant amount of time was spent.

The Seattle AAA Club set the rules for the automobiles. Why didn't they and the Referee, Guggenheim, inspect the automobile on arrival to see if the Ford had replaced forbidden parts? They made the rules. Why were Ford automobiles used for Pace Keepers instead of neutral automobiles? It is beyond imagination that this was carelessly forgotton. Could it have been because Ford was the largest seller of automobiles in the world and that he had spent a tremendous amount of money in preparation and he had a vast amount of promotional material to be sent out to the news organizations the moment that his car arrived. He had large dealerships in the west that would be hurt if he had lost.

All of this against a small almost bankrupt company in Stoneham, MA with one car.

Guggenheim decided to hold a hearing which took five months. The AAA overturned his decision and gave the Shawmut the prize money, trophy, and the credit it deserved. Ford had made millions, but Shawmut had gone bankrupt and out of business. One must wonder if Henry Ford ever made any apologizes to the American Automobile Association for his crew's deception in the race or was he ever embarrassed for his actions. I think not.One thing that was impressive was when the Itala and Shawmut stopped to help the Acme crew to retrieve their automobile from a ditch.At the Alaska, Youkon, and Pacific Exposition, Robert Guggenheim discounted the challenge to the victory by the Shawmut and Acme teams. In November, however, the Automobile Club of America overturned the victory. Ford had changed the No. 2s engine in Idaho. That gave first place to the Shawmut. In the light of Fords marketing success, the Shawmut Automobile Company was soon forgotten and out of business.

Meyer Robert Guggenheim (May 17, 1885 November 16, 1959) referred to as M. Robert Guggenheim, was an American Statesman and a member of the prominent Guggenheim Family who owned owned the American Smelting and Refining Company. He served in the U.S. Army during the First World War. He served as the Ambassador to Portugal from 1953-1954. He died at the age of seventy-four and is buried at the Arlington National Cemetary.

1903   Automobile Manufacturers


Thomas Tincher intoduced his automobile at the 1903 Chicago show and its unusual fearures dew a lot of attention. Compressed air in a cylinder driven by the motor was used as his braking system, pumping tires, and blowing his horn. Another show stopped was its $5,000 price tag and that was only the start four his four cylinders. While in Chicago, he never incorporated his company. His cars were built at the Chicago Coach and Carriage Company with wheel base up to 127 inches and engine power up to 90 horse power.   When he moved to South Bend Indiana, he organized his company as the Tincher Motor Car Company with a capitalization fund of $200,000 with the Studebaker Brothers as major stockholders. No more 12 cars were made each year and when he could not make a profit on these small numbers, he declared bankruptcy in 1909. He moved to Joliet, IL and became supertendent of the newly forme Economy Motor Buggy Company going from the great to the lowly.

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1903 Tincher Runabout Automobile

The Tincher, 4-cylinder touring car, shown by T. L. Tincher, 358 Dearborn street, Chicago, was one of the large cars exhibited. It was the only car equipped with air brakes. These, of the expanding shoe type, on both the rear wheels, are operated by a small lever on the steering post. The air is compressed in a cylinder operated directly by the motor and is used for transferring gasoline from the rear storage tank to the front feed tank, on the dash. It may also be used to inflate the tires. The 4-cylinder motor, with cylinders 4 by 5 inches, develops 18 H. P. It is vertical and placed in front under a bonnet, suspended to the double angle iron frame. It has mechanical inlet valves, placed side by side with the exhaust valves, and operated by cams from the same countershaft.  Vibrating jump spark is used, with storage batteries, and a commutator instead of a contact breaker. The lubrication of the engine is by splash feed from the crank chamber. The speed of the motor may be controlled by a throttle on the intake or by advancing and retarding the spark. The transmission of the sliding gear type, very similar to that used on the Mercedes, gives 4 speeds and a reverse. All these are controlled by one lever, on the left side of the car, which works on a slotted arc divided into six compartments. The arrangement permits of any change of speed being obtained without the lever being moved through the positions for the other speeds, and allows the operator to see at a glance which set of gears is in mesh, as each compartment in the arc gives a certain combination. The act of moving the lever to the central position, in transferring it from one slot to another, loosens the clutch. The change speed gear box is under the footboard. From it to the countershaft, on which is the differential, the drive is by bevel gear. From the countershaft to the rear wheels


The Neftel Automobile Company, Brooklyn, NY,  was run by Knight Neftel, a one man operation. He entered an electric car in the 1902 New York to Buffalo run in 1902, but in 1903. he changed the design to a gas-electric touring car. It was shown in the 1903 New York Automobile in Vehicle Equipment Company,s booth. The Rainer Company sold his cars. Production ceased that year without ever incorporating his company.

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1903 Neftel Gasoline-Electric Automobile

The Neftel combination gasoline-electric touring car, which is illustrated, was one of the novel types shown at the New York show. It was exhibited at the booth of the Vehicle Equipment Company. Following the methods shown in similar cars at the Paris show, the car is driven by electric motors for which the current is supplied by storage batteries which are continually being charged by a dynamo driven by a 2-cylinder vertical gasoline motor mounted under the bonnet in front. The motor is of 10 H. P. It is connected direct to a specially wound dynamo which is capable of keeping the batteries fully charged at all times. Provision is made for cutting out the generating unit if desired, and for starting the gas engine by the manipulation of a switch, which automatically controls the oil feed, the ignition and the generator controlling parts of the engine. The Exide battery of 44 cells is underslug and the two motors drive the rear wheels direct by spur gears. The controller of the series parallel type gives 4 speeds forward and 2 reverse. The car shown is fitted with Firestone solid tires which, it is said, have been found most satisfactory

Jones Corbin

George H. Jones and E. O. Corbin put on the market in 1903 their Jones-Corbin model that they attributed it to the European style. The engine wassingle or two-cylinder de Dion engine and it had a Mercedes cooling system. The lamps were of their own making. Bankruptcy was declared that year and the company reorganized as the Jones-Corbin Automobile The original runabout was priced at $1,000, but by 1906, the price wa $4,500. The company was sold to Matthews Motor Company in 1907 and that company's car was the Sovereign.

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1903 Jones-Corbin Runabout Automobile

Copied from the 1903 Automobile And Cycle Trade Journal

Jones-Corbin Co., 304 North Broad street. Philadelphia. Pa., showed one of their pretty little touring cars, which attracted a great deal of attention on account of its distinctive appearance, for although it is built along approved lines, there are here and there little touches of originality that cause one to stop and examine it in detail. The wheel base is 78 inches inches and the machine sets quite low. Wood wheels are used, and mud guards of ample dimensions and pleasing outline protect the occupants from flying mud. The ear is equipped with an 8 H. P. De Dion motor, and the transmission gives three forward speeds and reverse. Connection between the engine and transmission is by means of a cone clutch and a double chain drive to rear wheels is employed. The transmission is of the sliding gear type, and -drive is direct on the high speed. Speeds are 12. 20 and 35 miles per hour.

Double-acting brakes operate on rear wheels and on driving shaft, and the steering device is self-locking. It is operated by a hand wheel. Engine is cooled after the manner of Mercedes engines. The oil, gasoline and water supply is sufficient for 200 miles running. The lubrication system is operated from the seat. The seats are individual. Weight of the car is only 073 pounds, and the price is $1000. As the car is light, strong, low-priced and suitable for either city use or touring it appealed strongly to visitors and many orders were taken.

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1903 Jones-Corbin Automobile Advertisement



La France

In 1903, 10-15 automobiles were made by the Internation Fire Engine Company, Elmira, NY. They were marketed and sold by Sidney Bowman of New York City. It was model after the 1903 Renault and it sold for $5,000. It had a four-cylindey engine and was chain driven. Later that year, the company was reorganized as the La France Fire Engine Company. Later models used the name American La France. 105 was the last year for its production and he company focused on its fire engines.

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1903 LA France Tonneau Automobile

Copied fro the 1903 Automobile And Cycle Trade Journal

Sidney B. Bowman Automobile Company, No. 52 West Forty-third street. New York city, exhibited two models of La France automobiles, one a touring car and the other a combination chemical fire engine and hose wagon. These vehicles, though possessing a very French name, are nevertheless made in America.

The motor of the touring car is of 20 H. P., having four cylinders, cast two and two. Both inlet and exhaust valves are mechanically operated. Ignition is by jump-spark, the current being obtained from a small generator. The surplus current charges an accumulator and this stored up energy is used for sparking when starting the engine. The water pump is of the idle gear design, directly actuated from the motor. A Longuemare carburetor is used.

The frame is of plate steel strengthened with ash and properly braced for the reception of the mechanism. The speed change gear is of the slide gear type and gives four forward speeds and reverse. The body is of the tonneau type and rests on oil-tempered crucible steel springs. It is made of aluminum and finished by hand with the finest coach finish. Tufted leather upholstering gives very comfortable seats and backs. The front seats are individual. The axles are forged from the finest grade axle steel and the spindles are machined and ground for the reception of the bearings. Thirty-six-inch wheels are used both in front and in rear. They are of the artillery type, and spokes are made of handcut hickory.

The fuel tank holds 15 gallons, which gives a radius of action of 250 miles. It has an indicator glass conveniently located. The water tank holds 8 gallons. Both are made of copper. On the dashboard of the car are a grease cup for lubricating the journals; a sight feed lubricator for the engine; a small pressure gauge showing the condition of the water system, and a voltmeter. Steering is controlled by a four-spoke hand wheel and brass pillar free from back lash.




Clark and Company was a long time buggy maker in Lansing, MI. It was a father and son company. Their first venture into the automobile was making the body for Ransom Olds' 1896 gasoline car. Frank G., the dson wanted to keep building bodies, but his father, Albert, convinced him that this was not a wise choice . When his father died in 1901, the son started in designing his own model. It took him eighteen months to do so and he organized his own Clarkmobile Company, He put it into production in 1903. It was advertised as a car as" They Go and Go Right". In 1905, Clark sold his business tothe New Way Motor Company No reason was given for his leaving. He did return to the business in 1910 to build his Clark cars.

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1903 Clarkmobile Runabout Automobile

Copied from the 1903 Automobile and Cycle Trade Journal

The Clarkmobile was invented and developed by Frank G. Clark & Co., Lansing, Mich., and by means of his extensive carriage experience, he has produced an automobile that combines all the ease and comfort of the finest pleasure vehicles.The motor is of the 4 cycle single cylinder type, having a 5-inch bore, and is guaranteed to develop between 6 1/2 and 7 horse power. The valve gears are of the spur style, are encased and run in an oil bath. The crank shaft is 11/2 inches in diameter and made of forged wrought iron. The Journal bearings are extra heavy and very wide. The carburettor is of a special design and allows the motor to drive the car from 5 to 30 miles an hour without changing the gear. When the gasoline is once adjusted no further adjustment is necessary for any speed. This carburettor has only one light This subjects the oil, as it is fed in through this copper coil, to a boiler pressure which raises it to a temperature of from 300 to 350 degrees before it enters the gasifying coil. By this process the work to be accomplished in the gasifying coil amounts to about the same as required by the coil in a gasoline burner.


In 1901, Volmer Beardley and Charles Hubbs, owner of the Beardsley and Hubbs Machine Company, was active in making J. J. Darling's  "Darling " automobile in Mansfield OH. In 1902, they moved their company to a former umbrella factory in Shelby, OH. At this time Darling left the company and started making another car that was unsuccessful. Beardsley and Hubbs continued making  the Darling automobile in their new location. The two needed capital to reorganize their company so the production could increase from three cars a week six cars. They would need for their work force to go from fifty workers to 100. They conviced the board to capitalize the company at $125,000. The company was reorganized as the Shelby Motor Car Company with the new name known as th Shelby. The runabout was priced at $1.200 and its new tonneau was $$2,500. It was first shown at thje 1903 New York Automobile Show. That Spring, Beardsley drove one to California without any trouble. Bankruptcty abruptly ended the company that summer and the assests were sold to Thomas Jeffery, vice-president of the company, to build his Rambler cars. Evidently, Beardsley came out in good shape for he moved to California and in 1913, his Beardsley Electric came on the market.

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1901 Darling Automobile Advertisement

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1903 Shelby Runabout Automobile

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1903 Shelby Touring Automobile

Copied from the 1903 Automobile and Cycle Trade Journal

Shelby Motor Car Company, Shelby, O. (formerly Ueardslcy «.V Hubbs Manufacturing Co.), showed one of their folding front seat runabouts, and also one of their tonneaus. Besides these they are manufacturing light delivery cars.The runabout has a folding front seat that makes the car convertible into a four-passenger rig. It is equipped with a 10 H. P. horizontal, single cylinder gasoline engine.  The transmission gives three forward speeds, 5, 15 and 25 miles per hour and the reverse. The running gear is without reaches, and solid axles are used. The frame is of angle steel and rests on long semi-elliptic springs. The wheels are of the artillery type, 32 inches in diameter, and shod with 31/2-inch Goodrich Clincher tires. Wire wheels and other tires are optional.

The wheel base is 78 inches, and tread 4 ft. 8 in. The total weight of the ear is 1500 pounds. Wheel steering is employed in connection with rack and pinion gear. The tanks are of copper, and hold enough for .100 to 150 miles running. The wheel bearings are rollers, and roller or ball-bearings are used wherever practicable. The lubrication is accomplished by use of a multiple oiler with sight feed. A powerful band brake operates on the differential and there are besides two emergency brakes.

Ignition is by jump spark with dry cells ami a Dow vibrator coil. The advancing of the spark is easily controlled by the operator. A "Leppo" float feed carburetor is used by throttling which a wide range of sneed is obtainable. The body and gear are finished in red, but other colors can be given on sufficient notice being given. The best grade, hand-buffed leather, maroon color, is used in the upholstering and is stuffed with hair. Lamps, storm aprons, mat, horn or bell, odometer and a complete set of tools are furnished with each vehicle.

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1904 Shelby Automobile Advertisement

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1914 Beardsley Electric Automobile


Jacob Baldner got his start in 1896 working with Charles Duryea in Perioa, IL. He returned to his home in Xenia, OH, in late 1899 and with his brother Fred, built their first automobile, the first one to be put into production in Xenia. It was a single-cylinder, followed by a three-cylinder in 1902. They formed the Baldner Motor Vehicle Company in a former buggy shop. The three cylinder was primarily the downfall of the company because it ws difficult to balanc a vehicle with three cylinders. After producing only nine cars, production was halted and the company closed down.

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1903 Baldner Runabout Automobile

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1903 Baldner Automobile

The Baldner Motor Vehicle Co. are now turning out one machine per week and expect to shortly increase their output. Jacob Baldner, of this company, was started in business with Clias. E. Duryea in 1896, and the vehicles turned out by the Baldner Co. show evidence of   Mr. Baldner's experience and knowledge of motor car manufacturing. They are just equipping a newly purchased  a 5-story factory, 50xl50 feet, with machinery.

The frame of the Baldner vehicle is of heavy T iron, and the motor is bolted to the frame. Semi-elliptic springs support the body. Current for ignition is furnished by batteries, and a magneto dynamo and a hand lever advances or retards the spark. The motor runs at from 100 to 1500 R. P. M. A centrifugal pump maintains circulation of the cooling water, and the radiator is placed in front. The front axle is made of lV-j-inch square steel, with heavy steering forks. The front wheels are ball bearing. Either lever or wheel steering can be furnished. The wheels are of wood, artillery style, and are fitted with detachable tires. Win el base is 70 inches, and tread 4 feet S inches. The Baldner 2-passenger ear lists at $1200; the touring ear at $1800 and light delivery at 82000.

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1903 Baldner Automobile Advertisement

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1903 Hydra Ignition Batteries Advertisement


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1903 Covert Runabout Automobile

Byron Covert invented his steam car in 1901 and was planning to produce it in 1902. Before putting it into production, he changed his mind and designed his gasoline chain-driven model. It went into production that summer. Yet, once more, he changed the chain-driven to a shaft driven model and showed it at the New York Automobile Show in 1903 with aits name as theCovert Chainless. The Covert Motor Vehicle Company was formed in 1904 and produced its first four-cylinder cars. In the Buffalo to St. Louis run to the World's Fair, his car was the only one in its class to make it. However, he could not capitalize on this event and with sales mostly in New York, he decided to closed its manufacure in 1907 and concentrte on automobile parts.

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1903 Covert Automobile Advertisement



The Centaur Automobile Company, Bufalo, NY, was incorporated in 1902 with a capital fund of $100,000 to build both gasoline and electric cars. Gasoline with a six horse power motor was offered at $700 and an electric at $850. It could travel at 15 mph with a distance of 60 miles between charges. The electric model was received more favorably by the press, but in spite of this, sufficient sales did no occur for the company to stay in business longer than early 1904 when the company discontinued the Centaur car, but the company became a garage and sales agency.

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1902 Centaur Runabout

Copied from the 1903 Automobile and Cycle Trade Journal

The Centaur Motor Vehicle Co., 50 Franklin street. Buffalo, N. Y., had their exhibit of Centaur Electrics in .Space M in the restaurant in company with the Kirk Manufacturing Co., of Toledo, Ohio, whom the Centaur Company are representing in Syracuse. The Centaur Electric Vehicle, which was described and illustrated in our December, 1002, issue on page 54. was shown with top and mud guards, wood wheels and running gear in dark Brewster green, black body and dark green broad-cloth upholstering. There was| also shown a Centaur Car, with wire wheels. Every care has been exercised in the construction of these cars, and they are specially adapted for all-the-year-round use. richly deserving the praise everywhere accorded them. List prices are $850 and $025. The Centaur Company is also supplying running gesrs, steeering Wheels and other parts.

Copied from the 1903 Horseless Age Magazine

The motors employed have ball bearings, are of ample capacity and will sustain without injury of any kind an overload of 100 per cent, above their normal rating for one hour, and will commutatc perfectly up to at least 200 per cent, overload. The design has been carefully worked out with a view, of obtaining low current consumptionwith a reasonable weight. Durability also has been considered one of the first essentials, and these motors have been operated for hundreds of miles in rough service with absolutely no attention, and in general little care is needed other than to properly oil the bearings.

Recognizing the injurious effects of heavy discharges on both the capacity and life of storage batteries, the motors have been designed to give a higher turning moment for a given current than is usual in this type of vehicles. This provides the necessary torque or pull for starting, hill climbing and heavy roads without necessitating a discharge of current harmful to the batteries. The motor winding is arranged in two halves, allowing of a four speed series parallel system of control and reducing paralleling of the batteries to a minimum. The weight of the motor is sustained by the springs, thus protecting it from the jars and shocks of travel over rough roads.

The speed reduction is through the medium of a brass shrouded rawhide pinion meshing with a bronze gear on the ball bearing countershaft, all running in oil in a dust proof case and practically noiseless. Power is transmitted to the rear axle by a roller chain, the pull of which is resisted by adjustable radius rods on either side.

The battery consists of fourteen large capacity "Exide" cells, assembled in two trays and easily accessible. A battery indicating instrument is used in which the complications of the ordinary ammeter are eliminated. A small electric bulb located just above this instrument, lighted by pressing a foot button in the floor of the vehicle, enables the operator to plainly read the instrument when riding at night. The instrument will serve as a check against charging stations, since it enables the operator to determine the extent to which the batteries have been charged. The machine is equipped with two positive, double acting brakes which, when idle, do not engage with or rest upon the brake drum, and either of which would be effective in the event of accident to the other. A locking device operated by the foot enables the operator to set the brakes so that the vehicle will remain in position on any grade.The controller is so designed as to be interlocking at the point between forward and reverse to avoid unintentional and sudden reversals of motor.The cutout switch can be thrown either by foot or hand in case of a broken controller handle or other similar unforeseen accident. When the battery is being charged all motor and controller circuits are "cut out" so that any interference is not possible.

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1903 Centaur Automobile Advertisement


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1897 Sintz Gasoline Motor Carriage

Clark Sintz, Grand Rapids, MI, was working on his first car hoping that he could enter it into the Chicago Herald-Tribune Race in 1895, but it was not finished on time. He finally finished it in 1897. He decided not to put it into production but to focus on al types of gasoline engines.

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1903 Sintz Rear-Entrance Tonneau Automobile

His Wolverine engines were very successful sellers to the point where he was ready to return to building cars again. He sold his Wolverine company and with his two sons, Claude and Guy, they formed two companies; Claude Sintz, Inc. for the building of automobiles and Sintz Gas Engine Company for making  stationary engines and motors. Both of these companies went belly up in 1904. W. A. Pungs, Sintz's son-in-law bought the engine business one month later. Pungs teamed with E.B. Finch to build tgheir Pungs-Finch cars. Charles was killed in an accident a few years later.



1906 Pungs-Finch Limited Image

1906 Pungs-Finch Limited Touring

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1906 Pungs-Finch Automobile Advertisement

Whitney Machine Company, Brnswick, ME

In addition to his small machine shop, R. S. Whitney, Lisbon Falls, ME, had severaly small business on the side from sporting goods to jewelry. He used his machine shop to construct his firs steam car in 1898. When he moved to Brunswick the following year, he sold his car to a neighbor , and set up his Whitney Machine Company and devoted his time to producing a small number of well built cars locally untgil 1905. He later moved to Lewiston where he opened a repairshop and he patented a great number of hs tool designs for automobile repair equipment.

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1902 Whitney Steamer Runabout

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1903 Whitney Steamer Runabout

Copied from the 1903 Horseless Age Magazine


RunaboutSpecification: Two passengers; 1,000 pounds; running gear with reaches; standard tread; long wheel base; 28x2^ inch wood wheels; roller bearings; 6 horse power motor, single cylinder, 4$4x 6 inches; 1,000 revolutions per minute; make and break ignition foot controlled; float and sight feed carburetor; friction clutch transmission; two speeds forward and reverse; chain drive; 5 to 20 miles per hour; direct drive on high gear; single lever gear control


The buckboard type Buckmobile, Buckmobile Company, Utica, NY, was introduce in 1903 with a slogan " Ease of Riding without a Peer".It was designed by William A. Birdsall from Albert Seaton's idea,   financed byA. Veeder Brower, and the engineer was also Birdsall. Both water and air cooling was offered. The engines were made at its factory and the bodies were made by carriage builder Charles A.Childs. It wa first shown at the New York Automobile Show in 1903 with a great reception. Two cars a week were made, but with this recption, expansion was needed. By Septembe, a car a day was being made. This expansion caused the company to over extend itself and never recovered. The company was sold to the Black Diamond Automobile Company that continued production of the car until early 1905 with a total of forty cards built. The company was sold at a sherrif's sale in early 1905.

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1903 Buckmobile Runabout Automobile

Copied from the 1903 Automobile and Cycle Trade Lournal

Tin- Buckmobile Company, 708 Genesee street, L'tico, N. Y., exhibited one of their Buekniobiles in natural wood finish, which was much admired. The feature of this car is its long wheel base (80 inches), and the construction of the running pear, which gives easy riding nnd permits high speed over rough roads. The tread is 4 feet ti inches and the wheels are either wile or artillery wood construction, as ordered. Either lever or wheel Steering can be furnished.

The motor is an upright, double cylinder, gasoline engine of 10 actual horse power. It has 4%-inch bore nnd 4%-inch stroke, and is geared 3 to 1. A sliding gear and clutch transmission is used, which gives two forward speeds and reverse. The speed of the engine is controlled by throttling the gas anil advancing the spark. Splash lubrication of the engine parts is employed.

Roller bearings are used throughout. A double-acting brake acts on the differential. The gasoline capacity is 10 gallons, which will run the car 100 miles over ordinary roads. Speed is 25 miles per hour. The buckboards are of second-growth ash, air dried. They rest on two large, strong leaf springs, extending from axle to axle. The body can be removed by disconnecting the brake clutch and taking out four bolts. The large friction clutch is self-adjusting and is of sufficient strength to transmit 35-11. I'. The engine is copperjacketed and has roller bearings. The inlet and exhaust valves a-re easily accessible.

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1903 Buckmobile Automobile Advertisement


F. W. Frantz, having been unable to establish is automobile business in Akron, arrived in Sandusky in 1902 to seek capital for his company. Several business men were interested and his Sandusky. Several Sandusky electric and gasoline models began production in the summer. However dissension broke out within the company and by the end of the year another group took over and organized the Sandusky Company with a capital fund of $150,000. Ten cars were in the production process priced at $700. The 1904 model was slightly larger and the model name was Courier. Petition for bankruptcy came in late 1904. The company struggle for a few months and gave up.

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1903 Sandusky Automobile

Copied from the 1903 Automobile and Cycle Trade   Magazine

Sandusky Automobile Co.. Sandusky, Ohio, exhibited their new runabout. This is a gasoline car with a piano-box body, and a rounded bonnet front on top of the dash. The body is mounted on long leaf side springs, which rest on sills entirely outside the body, giving a low centre of gravity. The car is equipped with a 4 H. P. single cylinder, horizontal engine, water cooled by natural gravity circulation, no pump being used. Power is transmitted to the rear axles by two chains, and this double drive insures against a complete break-down on the road, for if one chain is disabled the other will bring the car home. The carburetor is throttled by means of a foot push-button, and there is also a muffler cutout. The car weighs 600 pounds.

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1903 Sandusky Automobile Advertiement

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1904 Sandusky Courier Model Automobile Advertisement


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1903 Dietz Lamp Advertisement

Clark Electric

A. F. Clark and Company, Philadelphia, PA, began to build electric cars, delivery trucks, batteries, controllers and mtors in 1903. They also made a combination gas-electric car with a seven horsepower motor and a dynamo to charge the battery. The gasoline engine could be started by the dynamo by just turning a knob. The electric cars could travel at 18 mph for forty miles. His one fault was too much, too soon and his company struggle for two years before he gave up and moved to Toledo.

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1903 Clark Electric Stanhope Automobile

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1903 Clark Gasoline-Electric Automobile


Copied from the 1903 Autromobile and Cycle Trade Magazine

The A. F. Clark & Company, Philadelphia, are manufacturing electric delivery trucks, all styles of electric pleasure vehicles, batteries, motors, and controllers. The electric stanhope is for two or four passengers, and the folding seat,  when closed, gives a very pleasant appearance, the entire seat feature bot being noticeable. The vehicle is equipped with a 125-ampmere-hour battery and two 2 -H. P. motors. Chain drive is employed. The reaches of the running gear is swiveled at each ends and the motors are suspended from the reaches. This construction is found to give great flexibility and comfortable driving. The battery will run the vehicle 40 miles at 18 mph on one charge.

The combination vehicle is equipped with a 7-H.P, gasoline engine and a dynamo that charges the batteries at the rate of 35 amperes. The bateries are 150 ampere-hours capacity and may be charged and sischarged at the same time. The vehicle draws 35 apmeres when speeding at 30 miles per hour.THe gasoline engine is started with a dynamo by simply turning a knob. The vehicle carries nine passengers. It is fitted with solid rubber tires


The Russell automobile began at Cleveland, OH, in 1902 when a young mechanical engineer named E. L. Russell convinced several local businessmen in backing him in manufacturing his automobile. In November, the Russell Motor Vehicle Company was formed with a $1,000,000 capital stock. The first car came off the production in the summer of 1903. The price was $800. From his specifications, the Russell was a great car and in 1904, the company bought a former woolen mill for greater production. Evidently, the Russell sales faied expectations and it went out of business that year.

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1903 Russell Runabout Automobile

Copied from the 1903 Automobile Review Magazine

The Russell Vehicle Company is a new adsition to the many manufacturers in Cleveland. Ohio. The runabout is fitted with a 6 H.P. self-starting gasoline engine. The engine forms the assembling frame for all the apparatus pertaining to the motor power of the engine. In the crank case of the engine is enclosed the gear, which, with the crankshaft, runs in oil. Power is transmitted to the wheels by a chainless gearing, which also runs in oil. Thus no oil cups are used on vehicle at all. A 375 Watt generator geared direct to the engine automatically supplies the current for sparking purposes, and also supplies current for two front lights and one extension lamp with cord attached which is concealed under the seat. A new style igniter, automatically timed, sparks both cylinders and is used without an induction coil.

The change speed gear gives the forward speeds and reverse. All movements of the car are controlled by the levers, the steering lever and a small lever on the left side of the seat. The directions of the movement of these levers indicate the direction that the vehicle is intended to take. By a slight movement forward of the lever on the left side of the car the engine is started, and a further movement in the same direction throws the engines in gear with the vehicle on the slow speed. The continuation of this movement in the same direction throws the engine in gear with the vehicle on the high speed. Any intermediate speed between two and twenty-five miles an hour can be had by raising and lowering the steering lever four Inches.


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1901 Neustadt Surrey Automobile

Three of the largest automobile supply companies at the turn of the century was located in St. Louis,  MO. They were Neustadt-Perry, Dykes, and Brecht and all three manufactured cars as well as supplies that ranged from screws to upholstery. Neustadt-Perry Automobile Supply Company had an enormoous selection of chassis for the customer to choose from. The company would make a car from a customer's specification or the customer could buy the kits. In 1904, J. H. Neustadt bought out Perry and reorganized  the company as Neustadt Auitomobile & Supply Company. Steam car kits were made available from 1901-1903 and gasoline kits until 1908. Any engine size and   cooling systems could be ordered. He closed his automobile kit business in 1908 but continued building truck kits until 1914.

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1903 Nerustadt-Perry Auomobile Advertisement



The Brecht Butcher Suupply Company, St. Louis, MO, decided to enter into the automobile supply business with their Brecht Automobile Company  furnishing every part that the car needed for cash only. They also manufactured electric runabouts priced at $1,100 and a steam car with no price given that was named the Rushmobile forthe first two years. In 1903, the cars were sold without engines and the company gladly recommended their stock. The manager for the company was H. F. Borbein, a manufacturer of axels and wooden wheels also in St. Louis. A si-passenger touring car was added to the line in 1903 and was shown at the Chicago Automobile Show that year   When the Brecht Borthers decide to return to the meat business in October, he bought the company  and changed the name to his and continued making cars until 1907.

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1901 Brecht Rushmobile Steam Automobile

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1903 Brecht Tonneau Automobile

Copied from the 1903 Automobile  and Cycle Trade Magazine

The accompanying cut illustrates the latest touring car turned out by Brecht Automobile Company, of St. Louis, Mo. It seats six passengers very comfortably. The track is 5 ft., wheel base 7ft., front axle 13/4 in. bed, and rear axle 13/4 in. Artillery wheels, with full metal hubs for 30-in. Pneumatic tires are used. The main driving sprocket has 36 teeth, and is cut for l 3/4 X 3/4-in. roller chain. Spring blocks under rear springs, and front wheels have roller bearings. The compensating gear has spur gears, and two double-acting brake bands are fitted on the outer drums. The body is made the same length and width as the iron frame, made of well-seasoned ash and poplar timber. The hood is of copper with hinged cover, and air openings in th» front and sides. The Brecht Company will have a very fine exhibit at the Chicago Show, and their space is No. 152

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1903 Brecht's Running Gear Advertisement


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1903 Randall Three Wheel Automobile

Copied from the 1903 Automobile Review Magazine

The Randall Three-Wheeler

The Randall Carriage seem like an evolution from a horse-drawn carriage, in that it is made by the well-known carriage builders, J. V. & C. Randall, of Newtown. Penna. It is, however, specially built to meet* the conditions under which it is to be used, and the single front wheel is not the result of desire to retain a horsey appearance, but a necessity on the country roads on which it is intended to be used. It is a matter of meeting conditions as they are found. The country roads consist generally of two-wheei tracks and a horse track in the centre. The three-wheeler, therefore, has been found by the Randalls to be the best suited to country road service. Besides manufacturing for the trade they will use one of these vehicles to deliver their horse vehicles. The appearance of the Randall ear suggests the strength and stability it possesses. It is not a fast machine, being built for country service and capable only of a speed of about 10 miles per hour. The tread of back wheels is of proper width to track in country roads. The front wheel easily takes the horse path in centre, anil great ease of control as well as smooth and comfortable riding, is claimed a ft a result of this construction. Over two-thirds of the weight is carried by the back wheels. The motor is an 8 II. P. double cylinderbalanced gasoline engine, geared -1 to ]. It climbs all ordinary hills on the high gear. The body is of trap style ami is fitted with a detachable canopy top. It is easily changed.

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