History of the Early American Automobile Industry|

Chapter 27


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Addendum 1    Addendum 2   Addendum 3

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The war ended abrupty with the Armistice Agreement in Noember, 1918. The automobile factories that were converted to building war materials were left with a huge inventory of machinery that had to be replaced with new automobile making machines. Almost all of their skilled workers had been called to service and consequently, until they would be able to rejoin the work force, new unskilled workers had to be trained. Fortunately for them, the companies made plans for these servicemen to have their old jobs back.

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Mark V111 Tank

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Side view of Mark VIII tank, a 35-Tonner, which was built partly by British and partly by American factories

January 2, 1919 MOTOR AG

Liberty Engine Used in Huge Model That Carries Eleven Men

It is very possible that one of the reasons why Germany called off the war and signed the armistice is that she had heard of the new tank. The cessation of hostilities prevented an invasion of Germany by the greatest tanks ever conceived. These tanks did not exist only in the minds of inventors, but one of them was actually built and tested out, experimentally, at Bridgeport, Conn. This tank, known to the War Department as the 35-ton Mark V111, was built partly by British and partly by American factories and was to have been assembled in France. It is an improvement on the large type of British tanks, known as Mark V, which General Byng used successfully in his surprise attack at Cambrai. They are far more powerful, however, and anyone seeing their aweinspiring bulk climbing like huge prehistoric monsters over rocks, stone piles, trenches and through forests, brushing 18-in. trees aside or crushing them beneath their bulk, readily can understand why Germany saw that it was all

As it had been a habit from 1903 to introduce new models in July, this was out of the question for the 1919 models. The 1918 models were the same as the 1917 models and this made all three years with the same designs. There were no automobile shows scheduled for 1919. With a lot of cooperation between the manufacturers and show committees, their dates were delayed, but nearly all of them were proclaimed to be the best ones that they had ever experienced. The American public was hungry for cars and 1919 turned out to be the best year that the industry would see. to date. Sure, there were hindrances such as labor strikes across the entire spectrum of manufacturing from coal, steel, and transportation that would cause anxiety within the automobile community, but there was little affect.

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Trucks such as these at Baltimore are not to be umped on the market now peace is here

Government to Protect Markets ---Will Not Dump Surplus Motor Vehicles---To Observe Interests of Maker and Dealer

Motor Age Editorial Staff

ONENo automotive equipment will be dumped on the market by the Government from the surplus left after the war. 2 Requirements of the Government for the maintenance of a considerable army abroad for an indefinite time to come will absorb all the standard trucks now built or in process. 3 Trucks not adapted for military service will be utilized by the Postoffice Department in extending the parcel post system and other ways. The Forest Service is also expected to take a large quantity of equipment. 4 Trucks, motor ears and other equipment now in Europe probably will stay there, either being used up in the service of the United States or taken over by some of the foreign governments. 5 Surplus airplane engines not available for aircraft will be diverted to some other use. Experiments now are being conducted, for instance, looking to the possible adaptation of the 1500 Hall-Scott airplane engines which have been on hand for four months for use in artillery tractors. In any event, they will be disposed of in such a way that neither market nor labor conditions will be disturbed. Liberty aviation engines are now employed in British and American tanks. 6 The Surplus Stock Division of the Government is trying to find means for the disposal of surplus materials and stocks of every kind so that everything may be absorbed naturally and gradually without disturbance to industry, prices or labor. 7 A preferential market, consisting of governmental and
semi-governmental agencies such as the Navy, the PostoflBce Department, the Indian Purchase Office of the Department of the Interior, the Panama Canal, the Red Cross, the Y. M. C. A., the Emergency Fleet, the Belgian Belief Commission, other relief organizations and foreign governments will take a large quantity of goods and thus relieve the home market of the task of absorption. 8 No selling to private parties or to concerns who desire to profit at the expense of the government and the people will be tolerated. Nothing will be offered for sale until every possible consideration has been given as to what effect the offering will



A 1919 Business Message

Forget that business has been under a war cloud. Forget that conditions have been in any way abnormal. Clear the mind of any thought that prices may go up or go down. Accept things as they are as the very best possible and get busy.There is business to be got. Go get it. With the return of peace come great opportunities. There never was a time when men in the automotive trades could do so much. The thing to look at now is the way to do things, not at any possible difficulties which may stand in the way of doing them. Difficulties, anyway, like troubles, always come butt end first. Once met they peter out. Furthermore, the man
who is busy has no time to think of difficulties.

Business can be got now. That is the thing te hold ever foremost in the mind. With that idea to the front the dealer will realize on the opportunities which present themselves, and it will make no difference to him whether he may have passed through a period of readjustment or not. He will not have noticed it for the reason that he

will have been too busy getting



Washington, Jan. 3The Postoffice Department has turned back to the War Department 100 De Haviland 4 airplanes which, it is said, have proven utterly unfit for cross-country mail flying. This action followed extensive flight and service tests between New York and Chicago and Washington and New York, which, it is said,
showed the planes to be unadaptable for the heavy postal work. Postal officials stated here that several of the planes crumpled in making landings and taking off for flights and several accidents, including one fatality, resulted. The War Department also has furnished the Postoffice twelve two-engine Handley-Page planes which shortly will be assembled and put on the New York-Chicago mail route.

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1919 Hewitt White-Walls Automobile Tires, the first to be advertised

A 110-Volt Automatic Farm Power and Lighting Plant that the makers claim to be the first successfully operated 110-volt automatic electric farm power and lighting plant at a low price is manufactured and sold by the Automatic Light Co., Inc., Minneapolis, Minn., and is named Alco. This plant is a light, compact unit. The engine is the Alco design and is exceedingly simple and accessible. It is a single-cylinder, four-cycle, valve-in-head type, water-cooled by a special percolator system that requires only 4 gal. of water.


This car is a four-cylinder with a wheelbase of 115 in. Two body types are offered, a five-passenger touring car and a four-passenger roadster. A G. B. & S. engine with a bore and stroke of 31/2 by 43/4 in. is used. Zenith carbureter, G. B. & S. clutch, Grant-Lees gearset, Dyneto starting and lighting, Connecticut ignition and
Willard battery are used.

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1921 Hatfield Coupe


Fraud of Mass Proportions


Pan Has Compact Engine and Sleeping Car Body

The first announcement of a 1919 model passenger car comes from the Pan Motor Co. of St. Cloud, Minn., manufacturers of the Pan, and it is of unusual interest, as while the majority of makers are continuing their old models, thi* company is to introduce many new features.

Production will be confined to one chassis, the same as was shown at the various shows last winter, and this will be equipped with touring, roadster and sedan bodies.

It will not be an assembled car like the 1918 model, but will be built complete in the company's own plant. It was designed by Victor Gau^reau, chief designing engineer of the company, and although there is nothing radical in its design, many new ideas are incorporated. The most interesting feature of the car is Its compact motor, which is of a light weight, high speed, four-cylinder type, with a bore of 3% inches and stroke of five Inches. Both intake and exhaust valves are 1% inches in diameter in the clear. The overall length is only 27 inches.

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1919 Pan Automobile

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Converted to a Sleeper

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1919 Pan Model A

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1918 Pan


Chicago, Feb. 1Indictments against thirteen officers and directors of the Pan Motor Co., St. Cloud, Minn., were returned to-day by the Federal Court, charging the use of mails to defraud. The indictment  alleges the concern is a fraudulent stock-promoting scheme promoted by a company which the district attorney's office asserts started on nothing, has never been on a productive basis, never had any assets, not even any patents and never built a tractor, motor car, or truck. It did assemble a few passenger cars at one time. The concern is incorporated under the laws of Delaware, and the men indicted are Samuel C. Pandolfo, St. Cloud, Minn., president; Norman A. Street and George Heitman, Chicago, patent attorneys; H. S. Wigle, Spokane, Wash., and John Barritt, Charles D. Schwab, Fred Schilplin, Charles Bunnell, George E. Hanscom, Charles F. Ladner, Peter B. Thielman, Hugh Evans, and H. C. Revin, Jr., all of St. Cloud.

Most of these men, the district attorney's office asserts, are prominent in St. Cloud, where the factory of the corporation was supposed to have been located. Albuquerque, N. M., was the first scene of operations. Then the concern moved to St. Cloud. Norman A. Street, first president, made Pandolfo "sales fiscal agent." He was to sell all the capital stock at $10 a share, half to go to Pandolfo. It is charged his share in two years was $1,500,000. This was shown by an audit. The indictment further charges that approximately $5,500,000, including $250,000in Liberty bonds, was taken from 50,000 working people tEroughout the country. A recent financial statement issued by the
company, the indictment asserts, claims that the company had a surplus of $2,500,000, although it never was on a production basis. The surplus, it is charged, was created by capitalizing intangible assets.

This concern has been the subject of many inquiries and criticism for some months, particularly by the Associated Advertising Clubs. A hearing was ordered in May, 1918, by the blue sky commissioners of Minnesota on certain charges preferred by that commission to show cause why th company's license should not be revoked. By a change in the reading of the contracts in the two days between the hearing and the findings of the Minnesota Securities Commission it is alleged the Pan company was able to prevent the revocation of it license and afterward persisted in advertising the findings as "a clean bill of health from beginning to end." Pandolfo persisted in offering stock for sale in the face of the refusal of the Federal Capital Issues Committee to issue a permit to the company, and Pan Motors was made the subject of a special report to
Congress by that committee


Washington, June 14The Federal Trade Commission has brought complaint against the Pan Motor Co., St. Cloud, Minn., and its president, Samuel C. Pandolfo, stating it has reason to believe the concern, which, the commission alleges, had taken in $4,723,811.69 from the sale of stock from its incorporation in January, 1917, to February
28, 1919, and its president have circulated false, misleading and unfair advertisements, statements and the like concerning assets, resources, etc., and have suppressed from the public facts relating to the plan of organization and financial standing. The company and its president are cited to appear before the commission July 10. The commission alleges that up to September, 1918, $1,156,667.53 had been paid out as commissions to salesmen and agents for the sale of stock and that $553,725.38 had been paid to Samuel C. Pandolfo as commissions and for alleged services and that despite the fact that the Pan Motor Co. represented that it planned to "manufacture" cars on a large scale, some 200 cars merely had been assembled by the company.

Fraud by Federal Courts

CHICAGO, Dec. 8Samuel C. Pandolfo, who has been in the limelight for the past two or three years as the promoter of the Pan Motor Co. of St. Cloud, Minn., was found guilty here Saturday by a jury in the Federal Court of the United States of using the mails to defraud. The twelve other directors of the company were freed from charges of conspiracy. The case has been on trial for nine weeks before Judge Landis and a verdict was rendered after nineteen hours' deliberation. Pandolfo was found guilty on four counts. All dealt with the mailing of letters to prospective stockholders and misrepresentation of the Pan company's progress and development by stock salesmen. Each count carries a penalty of one year in prison or a fine of $5000 or both. All of the defendants were charged with both the misuse of malls and with conspiracy, but the eight St. Cloud business men who have been made directors of the company since the plant was started at St. Cloud were dismissed from eight of the eleven indictment counts. A motion by the defense to set aside the verdict of guilty was dismissed by Judge Landis but he announced he would hear arguments on a motion for a new trial of Pandolfo Dec. 15. The defense believes that inasmuch as the indictmentcounts charge misrepresentation by stock salesmen a technical dismissal can be secured.

The verdict finds Pandolfo alone is guilty morally of making misreprentions to some 60,000 stockholders who up to the present time have paid for some $7,000,000 worth of Pan Motor Co.'s stock. The stock is $5 par and was sold for $10. Pandolfo explained that the additional $5 was to be used for developing the company. He took as his share that part of the extra $5 left after paying promotion and development expenses.

Midget Motor Car

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What is said to be the smallest four-cylinder two-passenger automobile is the vehicle shown in the accompanying cut which was built by the Oldsmoblle Co. of Hartford Conn. This midget, which is capable of a speed of 50 miles an hour, Is fitted with 20 by 4 in. airplane tires and is employed chiefly for its value as an advertising asset, for
surely when it appears on the streets everybody looks it over closely, and in doing so gathers the information that the Oldsmobile Co. of Hartford handles the Oldsmobile passenger cars and trucks and Armleder trucks. The four-cylinder engine is air-cooled with cylinders rebored to 2 1/4 inches. The stroke is 23/4 Inches. The tread is 34 inches and the wheelbase 86 inches. Nels Nelson, an aviator, who is connected with the firm, designed and built the machine. It was originally intended to manufacture the cars in quantities but this idea was set aside for the time being. Some idea of the size of the car may be had from comparison with the man standing beside the hood. Aaron G. Cohen, head of the Oldsmobile Co. of Hartford, is seated at the wheel. Cohen was out in the car recently and his speed was such as to cause the state motorcycle policemen to give him a little attention.


Copied from the 1919 Motor Age Magazine

The Noma was the only really new car at New York fully from the common line of bodies and produce something of distinction, without freakishness, he has immediately created a powerful sales stimulant not only for himself but for his dealers, because the same principle works out in both the wholesale and retail market. One new assembled car has made its appearance, this being a New York concern, the Noma Motor Corp., which is planning to produce 500 during the year. The car is exhibited as a sport roadster with a turtle-back deck at the rear, giving a noteworthy type of sport car to sell for $2,500. It incorporates a Continental model 7W, six-cylinder engine, a Detroit three-speed gearset, Standard axles and a Gemmer steering gear. The wheelbase is 128 in. and the wheels are wire, fitted with 32 by 41/2  in. tires. The car is to be produced in the Ammann's factory, which during the last year has devoted its 150,000 sq. ft. of floor space to the production of airplane parts for the government. The Noma company is headed by W. W.Walton, who within the last two weeks resigned the presidency of the Walton Body Co. to become president of the new company. Associated with him are F. Ammaun.. Sr., treasurer, and F. Ammann, Jr., vice-president and secretary.

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1919 Noma Sportter Automobile

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1919 Noma Sporster on Display at the 1919 NewYork Automobile Show

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1922 Noma Sedan Automobile

Noma Motors Corporation, New York City, NY,  introduced its protype at the New York Automobile Show in January 1919.  Because of very few new models that were made in 1918, It was the only new model on exhibit. Several of the high priced cars starterd making stirrups instead of running boards. This lasted for several years until the fad wore off. Noma was known as a builder of high end sports cars, but in 1922, a seven-passenger sedan was introduced at the New York Automobie Show. The engine was now a six-cylinder Beaver and priced at $5,500. Its standard wheel base was 128 inches.   From 1919 until it demise in 1922,  less than 700 had been made.


Copied from the 1919 Motor Age Magazine

A motor car that will run from 3 to 35 m.p.h.,and will travel 40 to 50 miles on a gallon of gasoline, will be soon placed on the market to sell at $295. The car will be known as the Spacke, and will be manufactured by the Spacke Machine & Tool Co., Indianapolis. The first regular production of the new concern will begin within the next four weeks, and the Spacke company expects to turn them out at the rate of thirty a day. If present plans are carried out, over 10,000 of this type car will be made during the coming year. The car is a racing type roadster, seating two persons, and is equipped with the Spacke 9-13 DeLuxe motor, a twin-cylinder air-cooled engine delivering from 9 to 13 hp. The car fully equipped weighs about 700 lb., and has a wheelbase of 90 in. Present specifications include, demountable wire wheels, 28 by 3-in. tires, Atwater-Kent ignition, gravity gasoline feed, and eccentric pump and splash type lubrication.

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1919 Spacke  Roadster Automobile 

F. W. Spacke, whose two-cylinder motors had powered most of the cyclecars during their heyday and  owner of the F. W. Spacke Machine Company, Indianapolis, IN, passed away in 1917 and his sons took over the company. They sold it to a group headed by Daniel Brroks who owned the Peru Auto Parts Company. It was reorganized as the Spacke Machine and Tool Compnay and they decided in 1919 to enter the car manufacturing business with a light roadster model named after their company. It featured their Spacke engine with a chain drive to the right wheel. It had a 90-inch wheel base with a 46-inch tread. It was priced at $295. The 1920 model was renamed as the Brook. The design change was the removal of the gas tank on the rear deck. Brooks announced that year that he was unable to continue and the company went into receivership and out of business in 1921.

Fords Return Homeand Start Work on New Car

DETROIT, March 15When Henry Ford and his son, Edsel, returned to Detroit this week he immediately started work on plans for his new car which he hopes to sell
at $250 or $300. How long he will continue this work is problematical for it is said attorneys representing the minority stockholders of the Ford Motor Co., are preparing to serve an injunction, stopping further work and bringing the whole affair into court. Mr. Ford has corroborated all statements made by himself or his son in Los Angeles
and Kansas City regarding his new enterprise and given in Motor Age last week. He added a few more unpublished facts and discussed his new car..

Edsel Ford will not resign as president of the Ford Motor Co. He will remain to protect the Ford interests. The Fords propose a factory organization five times that of the present Ford Motor Co., with, when in full operation, more than 200,000 on the new Ford payroll. One of the big plants probably will be located in Detroit. "The present Ford engine, model T, was designed twelve years ago," said Mr.Ford. "Nothing of the old car will be used in the new. It will have an entire new motor and new features. It will be just what the public wants. It is impossible for me to give you the exact details of the new car yet. Model T took two years and four months to perfect so you see it may possibly take me a year before I  have my new plan completely worked out.''


The Highlander car, which is the product Midwest Motor Car Company, which is made at Kansas City, Mo., is assembled from standard units. The company expects to bring out a line of three models during the first year of production, which will consist of a sport model and a five-passenger and seven-passenger. Closed bodies will be built on special order only the first year. Artillery wheels 34 in. in diameter, with wire wheels extra, are fitted with 34 by 4 tires. The wneelbase is 120 and 125 in. and the tread, 56 in. Options in color are given on the upholstering, which is of leather. A one-man top with dust cover, quick-adjustable curtains, rain-vision windshield,  This car is being assembled at the old Stafford plant in Kansas City. The company was organized about eighteen months ago but was delayed in getting into production by war conditions. The company is headed by P. M. Crone, and J. A. Fullerton is vice-president and general manager.

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1919 Highlander Automobile

The 1919 Highlander automobile was supposed to have been the Kay-Cee model in 1917, but the war put a halt to that. After the war, a new group of backers arrived and the name was changed to Highlander. An announcement was made at the 1919 Kansas City Automobile Show that cars were now being made with  a larger quantity forth coming. Only touring cars were built before the company closed in 1922.

Du Pont

The man behind the DuPont automobile was, E. Paul Du Pont, owner of the Du Pont Grain Exlosive Company, Wilmington, DE. It was exibited  at the Commodore Hotel International Salon Show in New York City in 1919 as a class act. The first ones had four-cylinder engines made by the company and the bodies were made in Springfield, MA.. He recruited the best in the industry to design and build his cars. It originall had a four-cylinder engine that was made at its factory

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1919 Du Pont Automobile

Three body styles were offered: a four-passenger touring, a two-passenger roadster and a four-passenger sedan. The wheelbase was 124 inches. Prices ranged from $4,000 to $5,600.

The company moved to Moore. PA in 1922 where 188 cars were made and back to Wilmington in 1925. A six-cylinder engine was used beginning in 1923. Several different engine models were used until the stock market crashed in 1929. In 1930, he bought the Indian Motorcyle Company in Springfield to assemble his cars there. By now, Merrimac Body Company, Merrimac, MA, were making the bodies and the Du Pont company wanted to move close to wher their bodies were being made. However, the depression ended the Du Pont company in 1932.

The Model C was introduced in July 1923. Using the Model B chassis, it was powered by an L-head Herschell-Spillman six-cylinder engine of 287 cubic inches and 64 horsepower. Prices had been reduced somewhat, with a two-passenger roadster and five-passenger touring each selling for $2,090. The highest price tag was $3,085. Just 47 were built in the next 16 months.

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1926 Du Pont Touring Automobile

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1920's Dupont Advertisement

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1929 Du Pont Closed Sedan Automobile

In 1928,  an eight-cylinder, 125-horsepower engine was used in their model G. The wheelbases were extended  to 141 inches to accomodate a longer and more elegant bodies. Included were hydraulic shock absorbers and brakes. The catalogue included twelve body styles from roadsters to town cars, priced from $4,360 to $5,750. Most of these, particularly the open styles, were built by Merrimac Body Company of Merrimac, MA.

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1930 Four Passenger Speedster with Body by Merrimac Body Company, Merrimac, MA

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1931 Du Pont Sports Phaeton Automobile with a Merrimac Body

The Du Pont Model G Speedster was introduced at the January 1929 New York Auto Show. A two-passenger with body made by Merrimac Body Company, it had a bull-nose grille. Mary Pickford purchased the first Speedster for her husband, Douglas Fairbanks. Of all the great bodies built by Merrimac Body Company, this was their crown jewel. Du Pont went into receivership in 1931 and out of business in 1932.


I could not find any references for this automobile

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1919 Cozedan Automobile

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1919 Cozedan Automobile Advertisement

There is one possible explanation. The Cozedan was to be displayed at the 1920 New York and Chicago Automobile Show. Howevr, there was a reorganization in 1919 with a complete set of new directors. These directors could have possible made a decision not produce it. 

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1919 Used Parts Supply Houses

10 MOTOR AGE July 17, 1919

Purchase Paves Way for New Ford Era Concentration of Stock in Hands of Three Holders Points to Production of Car Complete from Raw Materials to Finished Product as Formerly Proposed

DETROIT, July 11Edsel B. Ford, president of the Ford Motor Co., today purchased all the minority stock in the Ford Motor Co. except 2,180 shares held by Mayor James Couzens. The sale involves approximately $75,000,000 and makes Henry Ford, Edsel Ford and James Couzens sole owners of the company. It is the largest and most important transaction ever recorded in Detroit's financial history. Details of the sale were made public by Frank L. Klingensmith, vice-president of the Ford company. Edsel Ford, previous to the sale, held 300 shares of Ford stock. He now owns 6420 shares. There were 8300 shares held by outside interests. Henry Ford owned 11,000 shares. Approximately $13,000 a share was paid the minority stockholders for their holdings.


Copied from the 1919 Motor Age Magazine

Cleveland car has had an unusual history from the dealer's standpoint. Up to last Friday night no dealer in the country knew the price of the car and yet at that time practically every territory in the country had been closed. Because of the closeness of the relationship between the Chandler company and the Cleveland company the car has been accepted by dealers from the first announcement that the Cleveland company financed and directed by the same interests as control the Chandler would put out a car. The car will sell for $1,385.

The car is an overhead-valve six mounted on a 112-in. wheellase with a five-passenger body. A roadster will be marketed at the same price, and later a full line of closed todies will te produced. It is a product of both the Cleveland company and well-known parts makers. The engine and axles are of Cleveland design and manufacture; the clutch, Borg & Beck, Mechanics Machine Co. transmission, Gray & Davis lighting, starting and ignition, Mechanics universals, and the body will be manufactured by the Fisher Body Co.


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1919 Cleveland Roadster Automobile

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1919 Cleveland Touring Automobile

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1919 Cleveland Coupe Automobile

The Cleveland model was made by the Chandler Motor Car Company as a cheaper model to complement its parent company, Chandler. Originally the Chandler company denied that they were making the cars and p[ressreleases never mentioned the Chandler name. When the Cleveland accomplished to major tests in 1924 and 1926, the Cleveland Automobile Company was succeeded by the Chandler-Cleveland Corporation and a lowered priced Chandler replaced the Cleveland.

July 31, 1919 MOTOR AGE

DETROIT, July 25The motor car sales business, which is booming as it never boomed before, is attracting many in Detroit, and if agencies were available, the present year would see numerous new firms start business. This may be said to apply to every other city in the country for the demand for cars in all sections is greater nor- than
at any time in the history of the industry. But agencies are not available these days. Except in cases where new companies are placing their products on the market, no new agencies are going to open up in Detroit. There are many important cars which are not represented in the Detroit district such as the Nash, Auburn, Kissel, McFarlan and others. These companies all have turned down opportunities to place their products in Detroit and Michigan. The reason is very simple. Why should a company open new agencies, they argue, when they cannot meet the demand of their existing sales organization.


Present Shortage Is Placed at 2,500,000 MachinesDemand Was Never Greater

DETROIT, Sept. 5It is already apparent here that every car company in Michigan and Ohio will increase production in 1920 from 33 1-3 to 100 per cent. The demand was never greater in the history of the industry, and the industry is confident that it will continuejust as strong for two or more years. Right at present, manufacturers
figure, there is a shortage of 2,500,000 cars. By rushing production during the remainder of this year 1,500,000 cars may be produced. This production is going to fall far short of the demand, and the industry is facing the problem of double production if it hopes to care for its foreign as well as domestic business. The automotive industry is investing millions in new plants and equipment and the present investment is going to be but a small figure as compared with the expansion already scheduled for the
coming twelve months. In drafting a huge building and expansion program, General Motors has but paved the way for similar programs on the parts of other companies.



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1921 Climber Automobile

The Climber was first produced in late 1919 by the Climber Motor Corporation, Little Rock, AK that was owned by William Drake, Clarence Roth, and David Hopson. By December, the Climber had 10 dealerships with most of them instate. One of their slogans was " We are not making promises, we are making cars" Problems came early and dissensions arose with Drake and Hopson leaving the company. As with a lot of companies at this time, parts were hard to come by and production was much less than promised. By 1923, the company was broke  and was sold at the receiver's sale in 1924.

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1921  Climber Model 6-50 Four Door Touring

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1919 Climber Automobile Advertisement


Recently introduced is the Huffman is made by the builders of the Huffman truck. One chassis model, equipped with three different body styles, comprises the motor car line. The chassis is assembled with a Continental engine. Car prices are for the touring model, $1,795; roadster, $1,795, and sedan $2,675.

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1919 Huffman Automobile

The  Huffman Model R Touring automobiles made by the Huffman Brothers Company, Elkhart, IN, with a six-cylinder, 55-hp Contential engine was introduced  for the 1920 season. The company went into receivership early and for the next four years with several lawsuits and one being thrown out of court. Finally in 1925, they gave up and quit the passenger car business. Huffman trucks stayed in business for a year longer.

Copied from the 1919 Automotive Magazine

DETROIT, Dec. 26The proverbial unturned stone will be rolled over in the automobile plants within the next few days In the vigorous effort to locate every scrap of steel In the yards. It Is no exaggeration to say the majority of factories In the Detroit district are face to face with the critical situation, which two months ago was predicted for the beginning of 1920, when the reserve stocks would have been exhausted. The reserve stocks are exhausted, or nearly so. No attempt is made to deny that fact The new year rapidly is approaching and the portentous outlook is proving a nerve-strain that la torturing many of the executives of automobilfactories where long-time business relations with steel manufacturers or strong friends at court to push their appeals are lacking.

While it would be hardly fair to assume wilful misstatements of fact with regard to conditions at the various plants, the optimistic statements dealt out by a majority of officials are traceable to overzealousness or unwillingness to acknowledge a lack of foresight that permitted present conditions to arise. Certain it is that many of the manufacturers actually are operating with the constant fear that the next day may bring conditions that will interrupt production schedules if not actually compelling a shutdown for lack of material. The purchasing agent of one of the largest automobile factories In Detroit, in a statement to Automotive Industries, declared it was a hand-to-mouth exist-ence with many manufacturers, with the odds greatly in favor of their being forced to suspend operations temporarily. "The man without protection of an order placed at least six months ago may be able to scratch through, but it will be a mighty close shave," Baid J. H. Main, purchasing agent of the Cadillac Motor Car Co. "The situation today, with all reserve stocks depleted, Is infinitely woree than at any time since the strike began in September. As far as our own plant Is concerned we still are in fairly good shape and long ago protected ourselves with advance orders." C. F. Ritchie, purchasing agent of thDetroit Pressed Steel Co., said there was a serious shortage in the steel market and that it would continue critical throughout the first quarter of 1920 at least While the mills are working with the full labor complement, he said there was lacking the productive effort to insure 100 per cent output.

25 per cent of the 1919 business."That means," said Haynes, "simply that the steel manufacturer goes into the year 1920 with a large per cent of the business for the last quarter of 1919 on his books. Naturally his first effort will be to clean up his back orders and by the time he has completed the task he will find himself approaching the
second quarter of 1920 with orders for the first of the new year in a great measure unfilled. "Straining every energy the steel manufacturers will find it impossible, I believe, to catch up with the procession and put back Into our yards the prestrlke reserve stocks for a year at least. In many instances automobile manufacturers had the foresight to fortify themselves against the strike, which to me had appeared inevitable for months before the storm broke. They laid in surplus stocks that have tided them over without Interruption and In some cases they have divided with the less fortunate brother who from lack of foresight or some other reason had failed to build up his reserve. Those cases, however, were rare and concerned chiefly the effort of manufacturers to help the parts builders to keep going as a matter of self-preservation."

Some Idea of the gravity of the situation is revealed in the efforts of some automobile manufacturers to get steel regardless of the price and It Is a well known fact that some of them have relied upon the bonus or premium plan to get material. So eagerly have they been to get steel at all hazards they have offered premiums as high as $20 a ton for sheets, the aggregate in premiums alone, according to an automobile manufacturer, being sufficient to make the annual Income of the steel Industry of Carnegie's day appear small.

As a rule the larger steel manufacturers are side-stepping this class of business, leaving it to the smaller mills, while they devote their energies to overcoming the production deficit and at the same time caring for established accounts in order that their good customers may continue business without interruption. Even the smaller mills are hesitating to grab at the premium bait, for they, too, are under obligations to old customers, whose demands will keep them busy.

The apparently prevalent and at the same time absurd Idea that a resumption of manufacture would find steel mills in position to take care of all demands resulted in the steel manufacturers being literally swamped with orders for finished Iron and steel of all kinds which they were not In position to take care of. So anxious have been
purchasers that in a number of cases steel consignments varying up to carload lots have been shipped by express.


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