Early American Automobiles
There were approximately 180 manufacturers in the state from 1861-1930. There are about 160 different manufactures listed with one or two with no pictures. When this research was first started, there was some information on a few manufacturers, but as a whole, very little could be found. It has been fascinating researching for these automobiles. As far as I know, there is no other web site that has photos of all the cars built in a state. While perusing this page you will notice that some advertisements will have different locations than the actual address of the manufacturers. A lot of small manufactures hired companies or set up a company to do the advertising and sales.
Within such a very short period of time, technology, such as the internet and especially Google, has given us the means to do a thorough research concerning antique automobiles.
Great personal help has been given to me by John Bartley, Watertown, MA; and Walter Barrett, Dedham, MA.
Paul C. Berry of Easton, MA is a major contributor to this page. His help in research and his knowledge of Massachusetts made automobiles has been immensely helpful.
In Margaret Rice's book, "Sun on the River", the Bailey Family History, 1955, she states that when Col. Edward Bailey, S. R. Bailey's son returned home from the Spanish American war in 1899, his father took him to the factory to show him his surprise. It was a Bailey Electric Victoria Phaeton. His son stood there looking at what he called the most beautiful car that he had ever seen. He wanted to take it for a spin, but his father said that the weight of the battery was too much for the motor and had to wait for a lighter battery. With Bailey's help, Thomas Edison had finally made the ideal battery. Bailey kept experimenting with his car until he put into production in 1907. By the tremendous cost of the experiments, he had depleted his finances and had to incorporate his company. It was now S. R. Bailey and Co., Inc. This was the first car built in Amesbury. ( An 1898 date was also mentioned in the Britannica Enclopedia.)
The 1907, 1908, and 1909 models used tiller steering. The 1907 model had the common tiller that was used on the1899 model. The 1908 and 1909 had an unusual 1/2 round wheel with a button for hs horn.
1910 Bailey Electric Victoria Phaeton with Thomas Edison and Col. Bailey
The 1913 model was the last year of the Victoria Phaetons. There was no difference between the 1912-1913 models
What is shown here is only a portion of the Bailey Electrics. One can see different views of all these models at the Bailey Automobile Page. For the most comphrensive history of the S. R. Bailey, & Co., go to the Bailey History page.
The Essex Motor Car Company of Boston was incorporated during the spring of 1905 by Arthur Hovering, Lawrence Cushman, and Frank Branan for the purpose of building a steamer with a four cylinder single acting 15-20 horse power engine featuring poppet valves. Only one model would be offered at $3,000, a side entrance tonneau on a 107 inch wheel base which resembled the famous Serpolliet from France. Early in 1906, it was revealed that Essex had contracted with the Bailey Carriage Company of Amesbury, one of the largest carriage manufacturing plants in New England, for the building of the Essex. There were not many made before it went under. There are no pictures known of the Essex. The photograph is a picture of the 1905 French Serpoliet, the only one in existence.
Amesbury Automobile Co.
Copied in full from Beverly Rae Kimes Standard Catalog of American Cars published in 1979
At the turn of the century, Amesbury was among the leading carriage manufacturing centers in the United States. Organized in 1899, with a capital stock of $150,000, was the Amesbury Automobile Company. Involved in the venture were a number of local carriage builders, including J.T Clarkson, C.F. Worthen, and Edward R. Briggs. The chief engineer was C.J. Bagley, a well known electrician in town, who had designed an electric motor which was claimed to be the lightest and most efficient appliance yet built. Prospects bode well for this venture. "There are no better carriages in the world than those built in Amesbury" The Motor Review stated, "and its high reputation will give to the new company a prestige that a town of lesser reputation cannot acquire for years." It appears that the Amesbury Automobile Company proceeded no further than building a prototype or two, before the carriage makers involved returned to their horse drawn efforts and Bagley returned to his electrical work. (End of article).
Boston and Amesbury
1902 Boston and Amesbury Stanhope
In 1902, John Miller, machinest, co-owner of the Miller Brothers Company and a Boston engineer, H.A Spiller to form the Boston and Amesbury Mfg. Company along with two investors, Robert Patten and C.V. Childs. Spiller made the engine and Miller made the body with the Shields Carriage Co.doing the decorating and trimming. It was a two passenger Stanhope with two passenger provided with an extra seat stored under the main one. When needed, it could be removed and attached to the front of the vehicle. The company propose building gasoline carriages in three styles, a two cylinder 4x4 inches, 8 horse power; a two cylinder 5x5 inches. 12 horse power, and a four cylinder 4x4, 16 horse power. The smaller size is herewith illustrated. Everything will be manufactured in the company's own shops except the Baldwin chains and the International Endurance tires.
Crown Motor Vehicle Co.
1908 Crown Stanhope Runabout
Article from the February, 1908 issue of the Horseless Carriage Magazine
"The Crown Motor Vehicle Company has been incorporated in Massachusetts with a factory in Amesbury to manufacture High Wheel Cars for business and pleasure to sell from $600 to $1000. The officers are W.A. Shafer, President; Frank Dodge, Treasurer; W.A Grayson, Secretary. They were to be shown at the following Boston Automobile Show. " It was the company's belief that a high-wheel vehicle was needed in rural areas. Very few were made before shutting down in 1910.
The Ultra Motor Car Company was established in Amesbury in 1912 and a prototype of its new car was completed in the shops of Howarth and Rogers Company that October. Designed by R.H. Randall, the Ultra was a 38 horse power six, fitted with a four speed selective transmission and set on a 128 inch wheel base chassis.The body was an entirely Amesbury production. The radiator was of the pointed type aiding materially the sweeping lines in securing a low and speedy look. It had sporty wire wheels. The first models were a five passenger touring car for $300, a seven passenger for $3200, and a roadster for $2800. The first moodel built was a demonstrator in and around Boston in an attempt to raise financing. In late November, the Ultra Motor Car Company anouunced plans to relocate in Taunton. It is unknown if the relocation took place or how many cars were built. There were three known to have been registered in Boston.
1867 Curtis Steamer
Francis Curtis was the superintendent of the Gas Works in Newburyport and in 1866, he invented a steam engine which was attached to a piece of fire fighting equipment. The Newburyport Daily Herald described it as self reliant and independent as though it were a living thing. Nehemiah Bean, designer of the Amoskeag fire engine sat next to Curtis on its initial run and it may be that his engine was used in the Famous Amoskeag Fire Wagon. He built a steam passenger carrriage the following year built to the specifications of an unnamed client. The boiler was made by the Whittier Machine Works and was placed in front of the seat with a coal box at the rear. The water tank was 20 gallons and and coal capacity was 80 pounds. The steam pressure reached 40 to 45 pounds. It had a five horse power engine that could reach 25 mph. With a full load of coal, the car could go 30 miles, providing a half dozen stops for water. The longest run between water stops was 9 miles in 26 minutes. The price agreed to was $1000 to be paid in installments. When the owner failed to pay, Francis Curtis took back his steamer. This had to be the first repossion in American history. There was another first. During the testing period before delivering to his client, the Curtis aroused the wrath of his neighbors, one of whom swore out a warrant for his arrest. When the officer arrived, Curtis left in his car with the officer in hot pursuit on foot, The first getaway by car in American history. Curtis had difficulty convincing the Newburyport City Council the wisdom of steam power and he was never able to build another steam power automobile in town.
Bradford Bus Company
The Bradford Bus was built in 1901 on Market Street by Frank and Gerald Bradford. Its engine was cast at Russell's Foundry in Newburyport. It was used primarily between Plum Island and Newburyport. Because of overheating, its original air cooled engine was replaced by a larger water cooled one.
Stanley Mfg. Co
1901 McKay Steamer Automobile
In 1899, Frank Stanley owner of the McKay Sewing Machine Company in Lawrence, founded the Stanley Mfg. Co.to build a steam automobiles using Whitney's patents. They were named Whitney-Stanley and they were runabouts built with or with a canopy top for two persons. However, by lowering the backboard for a foot rest, four passengers could be accomodated. The car weighed 850 pounds. The engine was was two cylinders, the water tank held 23 gallons, and the gasoline tank held 8 gallons ennough for 90 miles with an average speed of 12 mph, or if desired a higher speed could be obtained. The Whitney-Stanley automobiles were superior in construction that the former Whitneys. Late In 1900, the Whitney-Stanley name was changed to McKay.
1904 American Populaire Tonneau
The engine was a Mosher design with two vertical cylinders with a 4 3/8 inch bore and a 6 inch stroke with a 12 horse power output, Top speed was 30 mph. The wheels were Weston-Mott 28" artillery type with three inch tires. The wheel base was 84 inches with a 56 inch tread and the weight was 1400 pounds. The springs were double elliptic and the frame was made of steel angle and could carry a 2,000 pound load.
The steering used a Brown-Lipe worm gear with a tilting wheel and the spur differential was also made by Brown-Lipe. A pedal was used for braking and the emergency brake was lever operated that acted on a drum on the gear shaft.
It was water cooled and the five gallon tank attached to the frame near the rear. The six gallon gasoline tank was under the front seat. The ignition was jump start. The speed was controlled by levers on the steering head and the head controlling the carbburator. A leather lined cone clutch, with pedal release, connects the engine to the sliding gear change speed device within an oil tight case attached to the vehicle frame. It had three forward speeds and a reverse. Transmission to the rear axle is by chain and sprocket.
One unusual feature was that the driver's seat could be tilted forward to allow passengers to enter, doing away with the rear entrance method. The tonneau could seat three and was detachable.
Advertisement for the 1904 model
1911 Edison Electric Truck Exhibited
Copied from the 1911 Motor Age Magazine
The 1911 Edison electric truck is built by the Edison Electric Vehicle Co. of America, Lawrence, Mass., and is in 1,000, 2,000 and 3,000 pound sizes. All of these are built with either side chain or shaft and worm gear drive. They carry Edison batteries and use General Electric or Westinghouse motors. The 1,000-pound vehicle has a speed of 12 miles per hour, and a mileage radius of 55. It uses 34 by 23/4 inch solid rubber tires all around. The load-carrying space measures 3 feet b inches in width and is 6 feet long. This delivery vehicle is designed for such trades as grocers, butchers, bakers, laundries and department stores. The 2,000-pound wagon has a mileage of 6O-mile per battery charge, and a speed of 4 to 12 miles per hour. It has four for- ward speeds and three reverse. The 3,000- pound vehicle is suitable for express work, and industries needing this capacity.
In 1908, the Lowell Motor Company, which had been supplying engines for several years, decided to start making cars of four, six, and eight cylinders priced from $1200-2500. Only a very few four cylinders were built on 98 inch wheel base with a three speed transmission and shaft drive before the factory quit its automobile business in 1909.
1902 Lowell Automotor line drawing
The Lowell-Automotor was a small roundabout powered by a single 3 1/2 horse power engine weighing about 500 pounds and capable of speed up to 18 mph on level roads. Only the running gear was offered in kit form. Maybe it was put together to see if it could run. No sales had been confirmed.
Waterman and Chamberlain
1900 Waterman and Chamberlain Gasoline Runabout
The firm of Waterman and Chamberlain produced a small engine runabout powered by a Crest Duplex motor mounted under the seat. Everything about the car was typical of the ingenious automobile construction of the day, with one exception; the power was transferred to rear wheels through a special gear of their own invention allowing the engine free of running the vehicle. It did not survive the year.
Both automobiles were built by Lucius B. Packard at his shop on the corner of Liberty and Derby Streets, His trade was a wheelwright and a cabinet maker, but he was known as a real Jack-of-all-trades. The three wheeler was destroyed ia a fire in 1914, the year of his death.
Little Steam Truck
David M. Little built his steam truck around 1900 in his boatyard on a wharf off Derby Street with the help of his friend Frank Cook. It had a one cylinder engine located under the seat beside a thirty gallon water tank and a ten gallon gasoline tank for the burner. Engine power was transmitted by chain to a sprocket on the rear axle near by the left wheel. The brake was also on the rear axle by the right wheel. The steering was by a tiller. It could reach a speed of 35 miles per hour.
Locke Regulator Co.
In 1902, Lock Regulator Company built a four passenger steam runabout that he named it the "Puritan". Samuel Bolton capitalized the company for $500,000. Two passengers could sit in front of the driver with the front lid lowered for a foot rest. The frame was made of tubular steel with a 60 inch wheel base and 30 inch wheels. The engine was a Locke invention and the boiler was a tubular super heating type that could produce 350 pounds of pressure heated by a gasoline burner. The water tank held 32 gallons and the gas tank, placed forward, held 16 gallons, enough water and gasoline for 100 miles. The speed could reach 20 mph and the engine was rated at 6 horse power. It weighed 1000 pounds.
In 1904 Locke built parts to be sold separately. A customer could purchase individual components or a complete chassis .
1908 Climax Stanhope In 1906
In 1906, Levi Flagg and William Taft, a former promoter of his Taft steamer, decided to build an electric car, but finding that it was too expensive, they decided to build a gasoline car instead. Flagg offered his hen house as the place to set up shop. They had named their car Climax and the company Climax Electric Works earlier. The Climax was powered by a two cylinder 18 horse power engine set on a 90 inch wheel base and offered as a runabout for $800 or in kit form for $290. It had a friction transmision as well as a center mounted steering wheel for either right or left handed drivers. The date is unknown for its first sale, but by 1908, they moved from the hen house to a cement block building in the center of town. Shortly thereafter, Taft left the company, but Flagg continued building the Climax until threatened by bankruptcy in 1911. The business had been selling air cooled engines to the trade and had been sold in 38 states. Soon thereafter, the name was changed to T and F Cycle Car Company, but no complete vehicles were sold under that name. Flagg started selling cycle and automobile parts and complete kits and they supplied parts for the Westfield Light car of 1915.
1901 Essex Runabout
The Essex was incorporated in 1901 and was a roundabout with a four cylinder five horse power engine on a 60 inch wheel base. It used an Upton direct transmission and final drive by chain and sprocket. It weighed 600 pounds and was priced at $700. A year later it was moved to Lynn and did not survive the year.
George W. Hill owned the Hill Automobile Company in Haverhill and in 1904, he had Gilman Brown, a machinest in West Newbury build a prototpe for him. THe body was was a close reemblance of the French Serpollet. It was a five passenger touring car with a side entrance tonneau, fitted with a patented air cooling two cylinder engine of the opposed motor type. The air cooling device was made of aluminum pins, invented by George Hill, generated to dispose of the heat in a remarkedly quick time. Inside a large balance wheel, which housed a fan arrangement,. was located forward of the cooling coil. This method prevented the use of the more complicated fan separated from the rest of the machinery. It had a 16-18 horsepower engine, sliding bevel gear transmission, three forward speed and a reverse gear. The direct shaft and machinery was encased in a water tight aluminum compartment and in a bath of oil. It was compact and the best method of any type for the period. His patented engines were built by Upton Motor Company in Beverly, MA
The first car was a two-cylinder touring priced at $1850. The 1907 model was a four cylinder with a price tage of $3000. In 1908, after buildind, ten cars, he wanted ti exand his business, but financial help was not forthcoming, so he sod his business to Elmer Basset who kept the name but became a Maxwell and Buick dealership
In Hadden Sheply's book on Automobiles Made in Essex County, the description states that Mrs. George Hill said that the body was made by Bryant Body Company of Amesbury. This same information was repeated in Beverly Kimes's 1979 book "Standard Catalogue of American Cars, 1805-1942. Rand and Bryant had been building carriages since 1890 in Amesbury.
Eclipse Automobile Company
Also were known as Cameron Automobiles
The wheels were 30 inches in diameter, the wheel base was 62 inches and the tread was standard. Its weight was 1,150 pounds. The kerosene tank held 14 gallons and the water tank had a capacity of 38 gallons. The chassis was the tubular type with double elliptic springs. It used a Mason engine and the boiler was made by the Eclipse Co.
The automobile design was made for easy and convenient control of power. The lever was used which operated a steering column that raised close to the seat between the two occupants so either one could easily steer the vehicle. Directly behind the steering column were located the throttle and bypass controls. The auxillary hand pump lever was to the right of the operator and was large and convenient design. On the footboard in front of the operator were the reverse and brake pedals as well as the cylinder oil pump. The bonnet had ample room for tools and supplies and ventilated doors on each side gave easy access for repairs. The continuous mud guards gave the vehicle a superior look.
Everitt Cameron grew up in Brockton, Massachusetts, and started learning the machinist's trade at an early age. At that time the bicycle business was enjoying a boom and bicycle racing was very popular. Having developed an interest in the sport, Cameron built a special racing bicycle weighing twenty-one pounds less than the conventional type which weighed thirty-nine pounds. The result was so good that Mr. Cameron continued in the bicycle business for the next two years.
In 1899, however, he became interested in the future possibilities of the horseless carriage and built his first steam car. Two cars of this type were used by the Back Bay Post Office of Boston to collect mail, and it is believed that these were the first automobiles used by the Post Office department.
Becoming annoyed with the dirty, exposed chain of the 1899 models, he built his first drive shaft car in 1900. The engine was a three cylinder radial steam engine, mounted on the end of the drive shaft and hinged to the body. Although twenty-five of these machines were built, he felt that there was no future to steam as a power plant for automobiles.
In 1902, he sold his interest in the Eclipse Company, went to Taunton and built the Taunton Steam Runabout. He got tired of steam cars and in 1903, he started working with gasoline and developed the Cameron Automobile. He had Brown Machinery Company in Pawtucket, RI build his automomobile until 1905 when the Brown Machinery Co. decided to stop making cars. He moved his shop to Brockton and and built the Cameron there until he ran out of space in 1907. He then acquired the recently vacated Beverly automobile factory building in Beverly. He stayed there until 1912 when he moved to New Haven, CT.
To see twenty-eight more photos and articles click on the Morse Automobile.
The 1910 Morse was 4 cylinder vertical type rated at 34 horse power with a extraordinary 127 inch wheel base that gave it a look of excellence and splendor. Full elliptic springs in front and rear. It had a jump spark ignition with a Eiseman high tension magneto and batteries. The transmission had 4 forward speeds and reverse with direct drive to third and geared up to fourth. The 25 gallon copper gas tank was suspended from the rear. An extra large tonneau allowed for extra seating. It was provided with a foot rail, coat rail, and pockets. It came fully equiped with horn, two front lights and two side lights, spare tires, complete repair accessories, and tool boxes with tools. The body builder was W.B.Judkins and Co of Merrimac, MA, which was one of the best body builders in the trade. A devasting blow to company was when he had to have a major recall for defective castings from his supplier. The company could not fully recover and it was shut down in 1916. Thus went one of the superior automobiles of its time. Original priced at $4,200.
1910 Morse Car, the Newcomer exibited at the 1910 New York Automobile Show
Photo and article copied from the 1910 Automobile Industries Magazine
The list of exhibitors promised two new cars, one of which was to be the Anderson, but through some inadvertence it failed to develop on time, and section No. 133 was pretty well filled up with Kline Kars instead. The Morse car, however, which is made by the Easton Machine Company, South Easton, Mass., was in place, and is attracting a wide amount of discriminating attention which cannot be explained away on the ground that the car is new. The photograph of this car, which will be found among the especially noted features of the show, presents a chassis in the foreground, which has all the earmarks of satisfying quality.
After working on their steam engine automobile for three years, the four Marsh Brothers finished it in 1899. Three cars were built before quitting the automobile and started making their Marsh Motor Cycle.
Copied from the 1916 Automotive Industries reflecting the earlier automobile years
Mile Road Record, 1.34 4/5 Brockton, Mass., Oct. 17, 1899
The fastest mile ever ridden over a highway in a vehicle was made yesterday afternoon on the State highway at Whitman, by the motor vehicle built and owned by the Marsh brothers of this city. The time for a warming up mile was made in 1 min., 51 and 1/5 sec, thus establishing a new 1-mile motor vehicle record for the world. Mr. Marsh opened the throttle suddenly and the vehicle, with its 350 lb. of weight, the lightest in existence at that, shot up the hill like a bolt of lightning. Immediately after this performance a mile was made in 1 min. 34 and 4/5 sec.
1900 Marsh Motor Cycle
1909 M & M Motorcycle Advertisement
American Motor Company
1905 Marsh Runabout
Article and Advertisment were copied from the 1905 Horseless Age Magazine
The latest product of the American Motor Company is an air cooled Runabout Automobile called the Marsh weighing 785 pounds with a wheel base of 80 inches and a tread of 54 inches. It has 28 inch by 2 1/2 inch wood artillery wheels and detachable tires. The engine was a two cylinder air cooled with a inch bore and a 4 inch stroke mounted in front under a bonnet. The change speed gear was planetary type with two forward speeds and a reverse was located under the footboard and chain driven. Another chain transmited the power from the change speed gear to the differential at the middle of the rear axle. The two cylinders were cast separately, cylinder and head in one piece. The engine was supported on the frame by means of two drop braces and could be removed from the car.
Cameron Car company
1910 Pickard Touring
In 1896, the Pickard brothers, Emil J., Benjamin, and Alfred established a bicycle repair shop in Brockton as it main business, but soon they began repairing automobiles at the turn of the century. They built their first car in 1903, powered by a single cylinder 5 horse power engine and road tested it for four years before deciding to put it into production. The production Picard was powered by a 4 cylinder air cooled engine with a sliding gear transmission and shaft drive. The brakes were lined with camel hair. Originally, the touring car sold for $1500 but needing cash, the price was reduced. For lack of local support the production finally ceased in 1912.
1911 Roader Roadster
The Roader was named after the term used for a fast horse. No one knows just how fast the Roader automobile was. It was made only as a roadster with a dropped frame, sliding gear transmission and a round gasoline tank fitted behind the seat. It was made in 1910 for the 1911 models with either a 20 or 30 horese power engine. The 1912 model was only a 20 horsepower engine on a longer wheel base. It ceased operation that year.
The Upton Machine Company was an American Automobile and transmission manufacturer in Beverly, Massachusetts. The Upton Machine Co. was formed in 1900 with $100,000.00 capital. Henry W. Goodrich was president, William J. Murray was secretary and Colcord Upton was vice-president and general manager.
The Upton was named after it's general manager. The first Upton was a light Runabout equipped with a single cylinder 3-4 horsepower engine, chain drive to a two speed transmission and then a single chain drive to the rear axle.
Following article was copied from the 1902 Horseless Age Magazine.
The delivery wagon here illustrated has been making 40 to 50 miles daily in the service of Houghton & Dutton, the Boston department store keepers, who are so well satisfied with its performance that they have ordered two more. The company has temporarily withdrawn the delivery wagon from service for the purpose of making certain alterations upon it which have been suggested by experience. The firm express themselves as very much pleased with the performance of this wagon, which will be restored to its regular work as soon as work is completed upon it and the two other similar vehicles which are being constructed for their use. Houghton & Dutton appear to be firm believers in the1 future of mechanical traction. The Upton Machine Company state that they are at work on a new tonneau machine which will have a four cylinder upright motor and a specially designed Upton gear. The Upton Company has also in hand some auto trucks to carry 5 to 8 tons each, but for the present they are confining themselves .to the tonneau and the delivery wagon. Next year they expect to follow the example of De Dion, Bouton & Co., of Paris, France, and place on the market motors, transmissions, running gears and complete vehicles.
1903 Upton Tonneau
After several years' experience in building transmission gears and gasoline motors, the Upton Machine Company, of Beverly, Ma. produced the Upton touring car. The workmanship, material, design and finish of the car compared favorably with any high grade car on the market. It had Jump start ignition. It carried enough gasoline for a 100 miles Steering is accomplished by wheel and worm gear. The car is driven by the Upton motor and it is of their ownwater cooled, four cylinder, 4 inches in diameter, 4 1/2 inch stroke, vertical, 16 H. P., crank shaft of the best grade of steel, fitted with five liberal phosphor bronze bearings. Connecting rods of crucible steel, cylinders bored and ground, and pistons fitted with three lapped rings, to insure the highest compression; splash and mechanical lubrication. The valves are readily accessible for inspection or replacement. The transmission used on this car is of a special design, and so constructed that in starting or in changing of speeds, there is no jerk, or jump, so detrimental to all parts of an automobile, especially the motor and chains; the clutch is so arranged that when the brake is applied, the motor and transmission are automatically disconnected, a positive safeguard against the cause of many accidents, where it is necessary first to pull out the clutch. Transmission is direct to the compensating gear, on the cross shaft, from the ends of which are sprockets, driving to the rear wheels.It had a 90 inch wheel base, tread was 57 inches. Wood artillery wheels were 32 inches and equipped with four inch clincher tires. The rear wheels were equipped with double acting brake drums operated by a foot lever. The Upton weigh in at 2,400 pounds.
The Upton Transmission shown below had two speeds forward and reverse. Final drive was by a chain and a tranverse differential.
1904 Beverly Limousine
Copied from the 1904 Motor Magazine. It was exhibited at the 1904 Boston Automobile Show
The Upton Machine Company.
The Beverley touring car shown and made by the Upton Machine Company was without doubt one of the prettiest and at the same time one of the most serviceable seen in the exhibition. The Upton Machine Company has spent a great deal of time and energy in endeavoring to furnish a car which would prove first-class in every respect, and from the tests made and the results obtained their efforts have proved successful. It has an aluminum body and tonneau of the latest type, fitted with canopy top, side curtains, glass front, and has seating capacity for five persons. The running gear construction consists of a solid steel axle 13/4 inches in diameter; wheels 34x4%, artillery type, made on their own hub pattern and cast in phosphor bronze. The frame is 3- inch channel steel, continuous cross braces of either channel or angle, riveted or bolted, the tires are 34-in. The motor is vertical water-cooled, 4-cylinder, 22 H. P. The crank shaft is of high grade steel forging and the connecting rods are crucible steel forgings. The cylinders are cast separately, bored and ground. The valves are mechanically operated, located one above
The Upton Machine Co. was succeeded by Beverly Mfg. Co. in 1904 after Colcord Upton left the company in June of 1903 and organized the Upton Gear Company in New York City where he built Upton transmissions. Although the reason is not known for certain, disagreement with his associates is a safe guess, because he took his name with him. In 1904 the Upton Machine Company in Massachusetts revised the Upton car and renamed it the Beverly, which survived up to 1907.
In the fall of 1904, Colcord Upton and Milton H. Schnader decided to manufacture automobiles Lebanon, PA. The name Upton was chosen in part because the Upton Machine Company (The Beverly Mfg. Co.) of Beverly, MA had discontinued Upton production.
For those who are not familiar with the history of the Cameron Car Company, here is a brief version. Everitt Cameron, a native of Brockton, was a bicycle-racing enthusiast who, in 1897, manufactured a bicycle that weighed only nine pounds. It was very popular and in great demand. He was also a believer in the steam automobile and in 1899, he and several investors produced the Eclipse Steamer made in South Easton, MA. After two years, he sold his interest in the Eclipse automobile and put into production the Taunton Steamer in Taunton, MA. He soon lost interest in the steam cars and in 1903, he made the Cameron gasoline car. The Cameron car was first made by the Brown Machine Company in Pawtucket, RI.
The Cameron Automobile Company has been a difficult company to unravel its existence. Every reference that I have come across has it being moved from city to city, but I have found tha it had factories in other cities making the different models, but the main factory was moved three times. From 1903 to 1905, it was being made in Pawtucket, RI by Brown Machine Co. In 1905, according to an article in the 1905 Horseless Age Magazine, Brown Machine Company wrote that it was no longer making automobiles, so the Cameron Company moved to Brockton. It was made in Brockton, MA from 1906-1907. In January of 1908, the the company bought the old Beverly Autoimobile factory in Beverly, MA and moved into its facility. Beverly remained the company's headquarters from 1908-1913. During this period, the Cameron cars were being made in New London CT and Attica, OH. In 1913, the Beverly factory was moved to West Haven, CT., but very few were made there. The advertisements prove this.
Copied from the January issue of the 1908 Horseless Age Magazine
Cameron Company Moved to Beverly, Mass.
The Cameron Motor Car Company, of Brockton, Mass., have purchased the factory of the Beverly Manufacturing Company, of Beverly, Mass., and the Cameron cars will hereafter be made in Beverly. It is stated that 100 cars are in process of construction, and it is planned to make 400 cars in all the coming season, in' two models, at $850 and $1,050 respectively. The Beverly Manufacturing Company owns a brick factory fronting the Bass River, and only a few minutes from the Boston & Maine freight depot, and also a two story frame structure, which is to be used as a garage and is now being fitted up for the purpose
The Beverly-Cameron Deal.
The Beverly Manufacturing Company, of Beverly, Mass., on December 10, 1907, executed a trust deed to Joseph F. Randolph, trustee, conveying to the latter all the real and personal property of the company. On January 22 the trustee conveyed the property to the Cameron Car Company for $80,000, including a savings bank mortgage for $15,000 on the real estate and part of the machinery. The consideration is secured in part by notes to the amount of $35,000, secured by mortgage on the property conveyed, and on the entire additional property and patents of the Cameron Car Company. This covers the floating debt of about $35,000. The debts contracted by the company for material, which amount to $6,600, are preferred to the rest of the floating debt, both in the trust deed and in the mortgage. The mortgage is further secured by royalties on all cars and other machines manufactured, and the notes which mature first and which represent the debts for material should all be extinguished before July 1, 1908. The balance of the purchase money ($30,000) is payable in stock of the Cameron Car Company by consent of the unpreferred creditors and stockholders of the Beverly Manufacturing Company.
1908 Cameron Runabout
The 1908 model manufactured by the Cameron Car Company was a light four cylinder air cooled car. The frame was made of oak held together by angle irons. It rested on ecliptic 36" springs front and rear. The runabout had an 86" wheel base and the touring's wheel base 98". The front axlewas bronze with integral steering forks and the rear axle was a tubular floating type with ball bearings. 32 inch wheels with 3 inch tires. Steering is by wheel on a column and a pinion and internal device. The engine was the same four cylinder air cooled 16-20 horse power as used in previous models. An eight gallon gasoline tank wasunder the seat, where also was a liberal carrying space. The stated weight of the four passenger car is 1,300 pounds, fully equipped.
1909 Cameron winning its class at the 1909 Dead Horse Hill Climb, Worcester, Massachusetts.
1910 Cameron Runabout
1913 Cameron Automobile Advertisement Showing it in New Haven
1918 Johnson Speedster
Earnest Johnson knew his cars.. His former 1903 car was made up of anything and everything. This car, a cycle car, was made of parts from several cars from 1908-1918. Thrown in for good measure was a piece of roofing sheet metal, He was a junk yard dealer's best customer. He must have known what he was doing for it is believed that is still around.
Phelps Automobile Company
The following paragraph was taken from the September, 1902, issue of the Horseless Age Magazine.
The Phelps Motor Company have begun the manufacture of gasoline automobiles at Stoneham, Mass. and will have their salesrooms at the Boston Automobile Exchange, Massachusetts avenue, Boston. The vehicle is said to be of 10 horse power and to weigh 800 pounds. The factory of the company is located on Tidd and Pine streets and has 40,000 square feet of floor space.
The 1904 was a three cylinder, twenty horse power side entrance tonneau (rear seat). The engine is mounted in front on a special spring and connected to the transmission case and rear axle housing by a large tubular construction within which the drive shaft is carried. This method is supposed to eliminate some loss of power for it is believed that vertical engines rigidly mounted to the frame looses power when changig speeds. This is a feature construction of the Phelps. It had an individual clutch transmission and used a bevel gear drive furnishing three forward speeds and the whole construction was fully enclosed. The Phelps was unusual because the whole body could be raised using the rear axle as a pivot. By using this method, the entire chassis became accessible for repairs and normal maintenance. Phelps built their own engines.
In an article of the March, 1905 issue of the Horseless Age Magazine, the 1905 Phelps was one of the automobiles that was mentioned by name as a standout of workmanship. It drew a considerable amount of attention from the visitors and press. This was one fine automobile! Here is an excerpt from a lenghty article extolling its unique construction.
"Sparks system makes use of contact needles of meteor metals operating in water jacketed pockets in the valve chambers and can be instantly replaced when worn. The motor is up front on a heavy duty spring. The housing of the Cardan drive shaft is a large tube which connects the rear axle gear box and engine crank case. By using this, the whole motive power plant is rendered as an integral unit and as the tube preserves a constant relation between engine and axle eliminates the use of universal joints.
The body frame is made of ash with 41" elipitic springs on front and rear axles. Steering is by wheel and the column which has a gear arrangement so it can be tilted in any direction without losing control of the vehicle. Lever on the column is for three speeds forward. Two pedals are on the floor; one is for braking and the other is for reverse.
A thirteen gallon gas tank is located on the back of the front seat. There is a large storage space under the tonneau, which can be lifted, that has space for a wheel tire, and extra tools. The electrical equipment, under the front seat, consist of three four-cell batteries. One battery is not conected and can be used as a spare. The wheel base is 107" with 28-32 horsepower. There are no exposed parts on the engine. There are removeable panels for easy access to any part.
The Phelps car, which established the first Commonwealth Avenue hillclimbing- record and later secured records upon Eagle Rock, in New Jersey, is being displayed by the Phelps Motor Vehicle Company, of Stoneham. The car displayed is of the three-cylinder type, but they are now working on a four-cylinder model. The construction of the three-cylinder engine is similar to that of last year's machine, with modifications.
In the summer of 1905, Phelps gave notice of his retirement from automobiles and engine building. Without Phelps, there was no automobile. In November, The company shut down and the Shawmut Motor Company moved into its facilities. Some records suggest that the Shawmut was just an extension of the Phelps.
Shawmut Motor Company
1907 Shawmut Automobile
Copied from the 1906 Automobile Journal
The Shawmut Touring Car.
The Shawmut Motorcar Company moved into the vacant Phelps Automobile Company in November 1905. The Model 6, which was equipped with a four cylinder upright water cooled 35-45 horsepower engine, was exibited in the 1906 Boston Automobile Show. It was fitted with a wood and aluminum body designed by Chauncey Thomas and Company of Boston. The price for the Shawmut was $4750.00.
The very latest newcomer in the trade is the Shawmut, a $3,500 touring car of 35 to 40 horsepower and weighing 2.400 pounds. Symphony Hall captured the exhibit, which was at all times during show hours a strong center of attraction as the car is of local manufacture, being built by the Shawmut Motor Co., Stoneham, Mass. The company is headed by Elliot Lee, lately president of the American Automobile Association. One model of the car is shown together with a display of rough and finished parts. Its appearance is one of solidity and strength united with a fine regard for style and finish. The power plant is almost a replica of the Panhard type, with some modifications. The crankshaft has the five ball bearing supports. The extra bearings are placed immediately between the bases of the cylinders in both the front and rear sections of the crankcase. Four ball bearings also support the camshaft.
All ball bearings are of French manufactureMalicet & Blinand their liberal use in every part of the car is with the object of reducing resistance to a minimum, so that the percentage of power delivered by the motor to the rear wheels will be exceptionally high. The transmission is of the straight sliding type, with reverse effected by a single gear and cam.
The motor is water cooled four-cylinder, vertical, of 4 1/4-inch bore by 5 1/2-inch stroke, with inlet and exhaust on opposite sides. The flywheel, which is 22 inches in diameter, has specially designed blades and makes a very effective fan. Make-and-break ignition is furnished unless otherwise ordered. All gears are planed from hammer forged nickel steel and toughened by a special annealing process. The carburetor used a float feed type, water jacketed, and provided with a piston throttle valve. It is fed with gasoline from a 24 gallon tank under the front seat. The radiator held three gallons of water including the pipes. It was circulated by a centrifugal pump driven by spur gears from the cam shaft. The ignition is ordinarily the make or break or low tension spark. The transmision or change speed gear is of the sliding pinion type, affording four forward speeds and one reverse.
The 32" artillery type wheels had nickle steel hubs with twelve hickory spokes. The frame was built of cold rolled pressed steel members.
1904 Crouch Motorcycle Advertisiment
Professor Herman Lemp, who worked for the General Electric Co. in Lynn, convinced the company by his expierments with electric automobiles that they could be able to manufacture them for the general public. General Electric gave the citizens the impresion that they would proceed to manufacture them, but they never did. The automobiles that were built were for company use only. They were some of the best built automobiles of its time.
In 1897, General Electric of Lynn, Ma. was convinced that manfacturing automomobiles was advantageous to its corporation and Professor Elihu Thomason and E.W. Rice convinced them to design and built. They specified that the most up to date principals of construction plus other features should be recognized and this would certainly advance the electric automobile as a sound commericial proposition. The actual construction began in March and it was on the streets of Lynn on Third of July.
It could carry eight persons at a speed at 14-18 mph with a radius of 20 miles. The chassis was steel tubing. The wheel base was 72 inches with a 60 inch tread and its weight was 1350 pounds. The battery was an underslung type being the first to use this method. Forty 60 amps made by The Electric Storage Battery Company were arranged in four compartments of ten cells each. Thes compartments were supported on rollers with the terminals of the batteries making automatic contact with the motor circuit. The batteries could br charged by opening a trap door, retrieving the cable, and hooking it to a charging terminal. It was equipped with artillery and wire wheels bothe having pneumatic tires.
The three horsepower motor was totally enclosed and the drive consisted of an enclosed single reduction herring-bone gear connected to a differential on the rear axle. The tiller was used for steering and was provided with the Lemp hydraulic steering check, installed between front wheel knuckles and the steering post and handle. It protected the driver from road shocks.
Stanley Steam Car
Arthur Stanley had been a long time employee of General Electric in Lynn and was a foreman in charge of the expiermental cars built there at the turn of the century, when he decided to build a steam car named for himself in 1906. By early summer he was driving it along Revere Beach Boulevard at speeds up to 70 mph. He eventually had driven the car over 160,000 miles. His car was more efficient than some of the best at the time.
1863 Simmonds Steamer
Clarence Simmonds was an employee at the Lynn Gas and Electric Company in Lynn during the year he built his steam car. It had a 2 cylinder vertical engine, using naptha as fuel for the burner and featured a porpupine type boiler. It took only 5 minutes to get the proper amount of steam to reach top speed of 10 mph. He received permission to drive his car certain hours to and from work. A group of promotors bought his car for promotional purposes. It is said that he was very friendly with the Stanley brothers. He never built another car.
Simplex Motor Vehicle Co.
The Electromagnetic Steamer was manfactured by the Simplex Motor Vehicle Company. The company was incorporated in 1900, but made its first car in 1899. Another one was made in 1901. Invented by Ralph Hood of Danvers. The engine and boiler were revoluntionary wherein the engine and boiler were single castings. The engine had four single acting cylinders. Intake pepit valved were magnet and were operated by three dry cell batteries. These valves allowed only a jet of steam into the cylinders thus saving water. It could run for fifty miles without refilling. Lack of funding was the cause of its not being put into production.
One car was built that had a 24 horse power motor. Vaughn Machine Co.changed its name to Corwin Mfg. Co. in 1903.
Copied from The Automobiles Made in Essex County by Hayden Shepley, 1975
When this car was shown at the 1905 Boston Automobile and Motor Boat by the Corwin Mfg. Co. It caused a sensation! The Gas-Au-Lec was the first gasoline automobile that could be started without cranking and could be operated without speed controls. It was the first self-starting car in America. Designed by Otto Hood who had prviously built the 1901 Simplex Automobile in Danvers.
The engine was built by Brown and Balch in Salem. A belt from a direct current motor to the flywheel was used for starting. The forward placed engine drove directly to the rear axle through a drive shaf tthat had two universals. No clutch was needed. An electric motor generator was placed just behind and to the left of the engine. It carried a pinion 3 inches in diameter that meshed with a 15 inch gear which was on the engine shaft, close to the flywheel. A 20 cell storage battery was hung from the frame below the body that furnished current to drive the motor generator and move the car at slower speeds that could be maintained by the engine. At higher speeds, the motor generator became a generator driven by the engine recharging the battery and stored energy for future use. At higher speeds, the magnetic governor clutch on the armature shaft oppened the electrical connection between the generator and the battery and also released the pinion on the armature shaft permitting the pinion to revolve idly without turning the armature.
The entire control of the car was by two pedals, one operating the brakes and the other controlling the motive power and regulating the speed of the car forward or backward. When the control pedal was pushed forward into its first position, the motor-generator started, moving the car forward and at the same time turning over, the valves being held off their seats by magnets. Pushed forward into its second position, the motor generaton increased the speed of the car and when the speed reach 8 miles, the valves were allowed to seat, the ignition current switched on and the engine started. The engine was now driving the car instead of the motor generator. Still another forward movement of the pedal forward as far as it would go, the throttle advanced the spark and the vehicle would reach full speed. There was no perception of the switching from electrical to gasoline in traffic.
Bracking was achieved by pushing the brake pedal forward to engage a pair of expanding ring brakes on the rear wheels brake drums. For more braking, the pedal was pushed forward to engage a brake drum on the engine flywheel. More braking power was done by pulling backward on the speed control past the neutral position to reverse the electric motor. Reverse speed was also done by this method.
This was a very successful design except the motor after several uses overheated and charred the wiring causing short circuits. The company owners wanted a mechanical cam shaft to drive the valves, but Hood would not do so. By his not doing so, the financing was not forthcoming and the car was abanoned.
Hood started developing the Otho automobile. During this time, the Corwin Company had been making Buick engines and Coulthard trucks. They continued to do so.
Photo and article copied from the 1905 Horseless Age Magazine
The Corwin Manufacturing Company, of Peabody, Mass., successors to the Vaughan Machine Company of that place, who control the American rights for the Coulthard truck, an English vehicle, are putting through a lot of twenty-five of these large lorries. The Coulthard truck has a carrying capacity of 6 tons, and is capable of hauling a trailer with a 5 ton load. The fuel is coal and the engine is rated at 35 horse power. Two gears are employed. On the high gear the e:igine makes ten revolutions for each turn of the drive wheels, and the low gear gives half this speed. Bodies of any required design are furnished to meet special requirements.
Copied from the 1905 Auigust edition of the Horseless Age Magazine.
Gloucester-Magnolia Auto Bus Line
A system for the control of drivers has been established after careful thought by Mr. Adams, which enables both company and driver "to get all that is coming to them," according to which the driver must make a daily report on the number of passengers conveyed, cash received, gasoline and oil consumption, repairs made and parts renewed. The driver is furnished with a rebate book, one-half of which is the operator's stub, from which he collects his commission, and the other half the passenger's rebate check. The latter half reads as follows: "If presented within five days from date this check is good for 10 cents, payable at any office of the company, of at the store of A. S. Maddocks, 103 Main street. Gloucester, or at the office of the New Magnolia Hotel, Magnolia, Mass." The operator's stub reads: "Operator is responsible for cents for each detached check. The twenty stub checks contained in this book will be redeemed at the office of the company for when presented by operator whose name is written on the cover." This allows the drivers a commission of 5 cents on each passenger they carry, and the company receives the balance. The stub book is intended to avoid any possible misunderstanding between driver and company, and is a safeguard for both driver and company
Five other routes will be established next spring in the same territory, ranging in length from 9 to 20 miles for the round trip. Eight to ten special cars, seating from ten to sixteen passengers, will be built, using self-starting electric devices, and other conveniences for the safety and comfort of passengers.
The cars will be built by the Corwin Manufacturing Company, Peabody, Mass., and will be equipped with canopy tops and side curtains, and fitted with 41/2 and 5 inch solid tires. There will be a stop of thirty minutes at each end of the route, giving the operator time to look over his car. The running time over the Gloucester-Magnolia route is thirty minutes
1901 Safety Steamer
The Safety Steam Automobile Company headquarters was in Boston but its factory was at Depot Square in Ipswich. The Safety Steamer was a small runabout which the company said that it profitied by getting rid of the bad features of earlier steam automobiles that were on the market. It featured a single cylinder engine, tubular boiler,seven gallon gasoline tank, a thirty gallon water tank,, eliptical springs, and tiller stering. The novel feature was that the nuts and bolts were standard and could be duplicated anywhere. This was the beginning of standardizing parts. A large tool box was mounted up front and a smaller one under the seat for emergency purposes. In addition to the runabout, a four passenger brake, and a light delivery wagon. Production was discontinued sometime during 1902.The body was a standard body made by Currier, Cameron, and Co. of Amesbury.
Richard Aldrich was an engineer living in Millville and was employed by the American Steel and Wire Co. in Worcester. From 1897-1898 he built a small 575 pound single cylinder gasoline runabout that he drove on the streets of Millville and Worcester. (From the 1898 HorselessAge Magazine: C. H. Thurston, a well known mechanic of Worcester, Mass., intends to commence the manufacture of motor carriages soon. The carriage which he will manufacture is the invention of Robert Aldrich, of Millville, R. I. It weighs 575 pounds, and is propelled by a two-cylinder horizontal gasolene motor weighing about 15o pounds. Transmission is by sprocket and chain, and two speeds and a reverse are used. End of article). No others were ever made. Aldrich did design and manufacture a carbuerator that he sold for several years.
1907 Proctor Runabout
After years sketching automobiles, Albert Proctor decided to build a runabout in 1907 for his personal use. Originally it had a one cylinder, but was later replaced by a two cylinder 15 horse power engine under the seat with a water tank in front of the dash. It is in a private collection in Rhode Island.
1n 1903 Frank Bosworth, 19 Main St., Saugus built a surrey and a runabout at his house. They were registered with the Massachusetts Highway Commission in 1904.
New England Steam
1899 New England Steam Automobile
The New England Steamer was a 600 pound runabout powered by two small high pressure engines. Gasoline was used for fuel with the tank was placed about three feet ahead of the boiler. It was lever steered. Shortly after moving into its permanent location, the manufacture of Comet Bicycles was begun and the automobile business was sold to the Stanton Co.
1901 Stanton Steam Runabout
For five years (1898 to 1903) George M. Tinker and James W. Piper made steam cars in Waltham. They started at the American Manufacturing Company at 165 High St. in Waltham. This was between 1898 to 1899 and the car was known as the American Steamer. From 1899 to 1900 they worked at the Waltham Manufacturing Company on Rumford Ave. and this car was called the Waltham Steam Buggy. The High St. company made Comet bicycles and the Rumford Ave. company made Orient bicycles as their main products.
Motor Pacing Machine of the Waltham Mfg. Co. De Dion Gasoline Motor
1899 Horseless Age Article
A real novelty at the recent New York Cycle and Automobile Show was an electric runabout exhibited by the Waltham Manufacturing Co., Waltham, Mass., weighing 1,000 pounds and costing $1,000. The frame is of steel tubing. The wheels, 32 and 34 in., have wood rims and 4-in. pneumatic tires, carrying a pressure of 1oo pounds. The wheel base is 60 by 84 inc hes. Chloride batteries weighing 550 pounds are employed with an 8-10 kw. Riker motor w«ighing about 100 pounds band and drum brakes act directly on the rear hubs. The capacity on one charge is said to be twenty-five miles. No evidence that it was put into production.
1898 Waltham Orient Steam Buggy
1899 American Waltham Orient Electric Dos-A-Dos
Copied from the March, 1899, Issue of the Motor-Car Journal Published in England
An American Light Electrical Motor-Car. The Orient electric "runabout" made by the Waltham Manufacturing Company, Waltham, Mass., is an extremely popular vehicle in the United States. The frame is made from weldless steel tubing, the forward truck being swivelled to allow for unevenness of road without straining. The rear wheels are 34 inches and the front 32
Copied from the 1900 September issue of the Horseles Age Magzine
We show this week photographs of two new Orient products, the output of the Walthain Mfg. Co., of Waltham. Mass. Oue is their motor bicycle, which has an air-cooled Aster motor. The wheels are 28-incb, with heavy spokes and hubs of special design, and the tires are 1 3/4-inch. The gasoline tank holds four quarts. As will be seen from the illustration, the regular chain Is on the right-hand side, while the motor drives the rear wheel through a belt on the left-band side, which runs over a pulley on the side of the wheel. The belt is tightened by idlers, which are slackened to start the machine. The two largest powers are Intended principally for racing
The other machine Is their " Victorlette." As the photograph shows, It Is a light gasoline carriage, normally carrying two people, but with an auxiliary seat in front, which makes it possible on good roads to add a third and even a fourth passenger. It is fitted with a 3 h. p. Aster or de Dion watercooled motor, with speed-changing gears.
In designing this vehicle, the makers have endeavored to get away from the " horse wanted " style, and our readers will agree that they have been successful both In achieving this and In producing a graceful and attractive turnout.
1902 Orient Runabout
It had an 8 horse power motor and a tranmission with two forward speeds and a reverse. The running gear is seamless tubing with drop forged joints.The axles were strongly trussed as the carry through the springs the entire weight of the frame and machinery. It had 30 inch wheels that had adjustment nuts so it was impossibe to loose a wheel. The body was bolted to the frame with rubber cushions in between body for more comfortable riding. The entire body could be quickly removed for quick repairs. It had a water cooled motor and speed lever that when pushed forward controlled the speeds to 22 mph.
1903 Orient Runabout
The new Orient runabout differs considerably from the last year's model. The new 1903 model has been widened 4 inches and the carriage is now of standard tread. Gear and body have also been lengthened, and the body has a folding seat on the front, under which is room for wraps, parcels and tools. The body is finished in black and has a maroon gear. The company will substitute artillery wheels at a slight extra charge if ordered. The motor has been made larger and now has a 4 inch bore and a 4 1/2 inch stroke. The body is hung on rubber cushions, independent of the body frame, and is said to be absolutely free from vibration. The vehicle has a one lever control. Moving the lever forward starts the machine forward, and pulling back on it puts on the brake; and if the lever is held in the reverse position the carriage will go backward. The power is governed by a foot throttle device on the gasoline pipe and governs the amount of gas admitted to the motor, and this with the spark changing lever on the steering post makes the vehicle very easy to handle and simple for the beginner to learn.
1904 Orient Tonneau
1904 Horseless Age Magazine, July Edition
This was a new line of the Orient cars and was made as a cross between the Orient Buckboards and the Orients.
In 1906, Waltham Mfg. Co. announced that the models would be henceforth be called Waltham Orients because of prestigeous Waltham name.
Between 1903 and 1908 they made approximately 2,500 Orient Buckboard Cars at the Waltham Manufacturing Company on Rumford Avenue. The cars were sold all over the world and today they are a big part of America's history on cars. Recently a survey was taken throughout the world of all Orient Buckboards in existence today. There are a total of 57 Orient Buckboard owners today; 45 are in the United States and, of course, one of these is at the Waltham Museum.
Copied from the 1906 Automobile and Cycle Trade Journal
Metz Automobile Company
In 1909, the Waltham Automobile Company was failing and Charles Metz, who had left the company in 1902 to form his Orient Motorcycle Company, returned and bought the company. It was named the Metz Automobile Company.
At the 1909 Boston Automobile Show, The Metz Plan was singled out for an article in the Horseless Age Magazine for one of its featured articles describing it as one of the best small cars of the show.
109 Metz Plan Roadster with top up
Metz Manufacturing Company , Incorporated.
The Metz Manufacturing Company has been incorporated under Massachusetts laws at Waltham, Mass., to take over the business of the C. H. Metz Company, which nearly a year ago bought out the Waltham Manufacturing Company. The new company is capitalized at $300,000. The directors are: John C. Robbins, president; Charles Spiegelberg, treasurer, and Charles H. Wolfe. Mr. Metz is the majority stockholder. The company will continue to manufacture assembled parts for a runabout, which are sold under what is known as the Metz plan, the purchasers doing the final assembling themselves. It is said that nearly 200 men are at present at work in the company's plant. There has been some talk of removing the business to some other city, but the Waltham Business Men's Association has taken the matter up, and will make endeavors to hold the company.
Although Metz was not the first to offer a kit car, Dyke and Sears pre-dated Metz with do-it-your-self high wheelers, Metz did offer the first known kit automobile on the installment plan, known as the Metz Plan. The buyer would buy 14 groups or packages of parts for $27.00 which would be put together with the plans and tools supplied, or a factory assembled automobile could be bought for $600.00. This plan was in effect until 1911 when it became impractical to compete with a dealer supplied model "T" Ford.
1910 Plan Roadster
In 1911 Metz introduced the Model 22 as a 1912 model. The Model 22 had a 4 cylinder engine and continued using the friction drive concept that had been used in the Plan Car. Only one body style was available and the color was dark blue with cream wheels. This was a two person roadster without doors. An available option to increase seating capacity was either a single seat or a double seat that could be mounted on the tool box at the rear of the car; however, utility of these seats was limited due to difficult access. The standard Model 22 roadster initially sold for $495 in 1912 and 1913.
1911 Metz Runabout
Metz entered three Model 22 cars in the July 1911 Glidden Tour. He did so to give them a good road test before full scale production. The Metz team was the only team out of the 70 cars on the tour that arrived at the finish line without a time extension. However, they did not accumulate enough points to gain an overall win. Metz also sent a three car team to compete in the 1913 Glidden Tour from Minneapolis Minnesota to Glacier Park Montana and this time they won with perfect scores and no time extension. In some ways this win was detrimental to the Metz company since it convinced Metz that the friction drive concept was the best and he continued using it even though noticable sales resistance to it was evident.
Copied from the 1913 Edition Automoble Magazine
1913 Metz Automobile Advertisement
1913 Metz Speedster Automobile
1915 Metz Delivery
In 1917, the federal government used the plant for war production. The company did not make a 1918. Because the government failed to pay for the use of the plant., Metz was in dire financial straits. They introduced the Master Six model, but because for lack of funds, it was an assembled model. Metz struggled until 1922 before he called it quits. The 1922 Metz was named the Waltham.
1922 Waltham Sedan
The Abner Doble Steam Automobile Company
1913 Doble Touring, an Experimental Model
There were four Doble brothers: Abner, William, John and Warren. The father patented the Doble Pelton wheel in California and made money. All were at one time associated with the automobile company, with Abner, John and Warren as the leading lights. Abner built his first steam car between 1906 and 1909 while still in high school, with the assistance of his brothers. It was based on components salvaged from a wrecked White Motor Company steamer, driving a new engine of the Doble brothers' own design. It did not run particularly well, but it inspired the brothers to build two more prototypes in the following years. Abner moved to Massachusetts in 1910 to attend MIT, but dropped out after just one semester to work with his brothers on their steam cars.
Their third prototype, the Model B, led Abner to file patents for the innovations incorporated in it which included a steam condenser which enabled the water supply to last for as much as 1,500 miles, instead of the typical steam car's 20 - 50 miles. The Model B also protected the interior of the boiler from the common steam vehicle nuisances of corrosion and scale by mixing engine oil with feedwater.
While the Model B did not possess the convenience of an internal combustion engined vehicle, it attracted the attention of contemporary automobile trade magazines with the improvements it displayed over previous steam cars. Apart from its slow starting time, the Model B was virtually silent compared to contemporary gasoline engines. It also possessed no clutch or transmission, which were superfluous due to the substantial torque produced by steam engines from 0 rpm. Most noticeably, the Model B could accelerate from 0 - 60 mph in just 15 seconds, whereas a Model T For of the period took 40 seconds to reach its top speed of 40 - 50 mph..
The A. Doble Company was located at 157 High Street . The Doble was the best steam car ever built. Their penchant for spending too much time building their autos resulted in very few sales.
1898 Goddeu Runabout
Louis Goddeu was a Candian who imigrated to Winchester and made his fortune. He worked for United Shoe Company as part of the executive board. He was an inventor and had 300 patents one of which was his four wheel tandem car that used denatured alcohol as fuel. He built four automobiles mostly for family members. None went into production. His most famous invention was the paper stapler that is in use today.
1896 Walkins Electric High Wheeler
L. E. Watkins was a civil engineer from Boston who designed both a gasoline and an electric car in early 1896 for the Self-Contained Equipment Motor Vehicle Co. of Dorchester. They were shown at the Franklin Park Exhibition in Boston on the Fourth of July.They attracted some financiers from Springfield and convinced him to move there. A few cars or the Bay State Motive Power Company may have been made but it is not certain.
The Partnership of Milne-Killlam began building light steam engines using the Whitney patent in 1897. The following year they attached the motor to a buggy and it ran so well that they formed the Everett Motor Crriage Co. and made some more for local sale.
The waffel type upholestery and folding top were the most beautiful features of the Leach. It was a runabout on a tuberal frame with three elliptical supporting springs with two cylinder 6 horse power vertical engine. It had an automatically fed tubular boiler with enough water for 35 miles using either kerosene or gasoline for burner fuel. It could carry either two or four passengers. Total weight was 700 pounds. Acording to the style and equipment, the cost was between $600-$1200. Failing to get financial support, he closed his shop in 1901.
1900 Leach Advertisement
Malden Automobile Co.
Copied from the English Motor-Car Journal 1899 Edition
The Stanley Brothers, of Newton, Mass., in their 400-lbs. steam carriage. This wagon was begun July 6th, 1897, and first placed on the road in October, 1897. The first engines in this wagon were a pair of inclined cylinders by the Mason Regulator Co., 2"-in. bore, and having 31/2 in. stroke, link motion; then three more pairs of engines were supplied for this wagon by the Mason Regulator Co., which were over weight according to the Stanley idea, and all four of the Mason engines were laid aside, and the Stanley car is now driven by a pair of vertical engines, 11/2 in. bore, with 31/2 in. stroke, weighing only 19 lbs., built by J. W. Penny & Son, Mechanics' Falls, Maine. The Stanleys are not engineers, and hence depended on others for the practical details of their engines. There was no reverse gear which mason agreed that all vehicles should have one.
1898 Horseless Age Magazine
William B. Mason, of the Mason Regulator Co., Boston, Mass., has built for his own use a steam oarriage weighing about 450 pounds. He also built the engine used by E. F. Stanley, Newton, Mass., in his steam carriage, and is now woiking on an order for 100 engines for the Stanley Dry Plate Co
Stanley Twins Riding in Their 1898 Stanley AutomobileIn 1898,
The Stanley Motor Carriage Co. of Newton, Massachusetts, commissioned Currier, Cameron, and Co. to construct ten bodies for its new steam-operated automobile. As was their practice at the time, Currier & Cameron constructed the coachwork and subcontracted the painting and trimming to the Shields Carriage Co. In 1899, Stanley sold the steamer to Locomobile, bought it back that same year with the understanding that they could not make any automobiles for two years.
In 1901, Stanley Motor Carriage Co. contracted Currier , Cameron, and Co. to make bodies for their new edition of the Stanley Automobile. With all of these body orders, Currier-Cameron could not do all the work themselves, so three other carriage companies, Shields, Leitch, and Briggs were contracted to help make the bodies. These four companies were involved in supplying these bodies. Leitch and Briggs were also independent makers. Currier, Cameron andCo. was their body makers until 1922.
The 1903 model had its running gear leghtened by 8 inches and a had a roomer front seat. It also had a mud guard. Other differences were technical and not noticeable.
In 1917, the brothers sold their interests to Prescott Warren. The company then endured a period of decline and technological stagnation. As the production specifications show, no models with a power output higher than 20 HP were produced after 1918. Far better cars were available at much lower cost for example, a 1924 Stanley 740D sedan cost $3950 ($49236 today, compared to under $500 for a Model T Ford. Widespread use of electric starters in internal combustion cars eroded the greatest remaining technological advantages of the steam car. In 1918, Francis Stanley was killed when he wrecked his car while avoiding an on-coming vehicle in Newburyport, MA.
Efficiencies of scale, a lack of effective advertising and general public desire for higher speeds and less fussy starting than were possible with the Stanley technology were the primary causes of the company's demise and the factory closed for good in 1924 in Newton.
Stanley Brothers in the 1899 Locomobile No.1 Runabout
The Locomobile was built in Newton and Westboro, MA for two more years before moving to Chicopee using a portion of the Stevens Arms Factory, sharing a space with Overman Motor Vehicle Company.They were ther for a very short time until their factory was finished in Bridgeport CT The 1902 Locomobile Gasoline model was developed there, but put into production in Bridgeport. The remainder of the Locomobile machinery was moved to Bridgeport in 1903.
American Steam Automobile Company
The American Steam Cars were built by Thomas S. Derr, a former teacher at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Thomas S. Derr tinkered with Stanley Steam Cars specializing in servicing, modifications and improvements. In 1929 Derr formed The American Steam Automobile Co. and developed his own engine and boiler and offered for sale a number of American Steam Cars. The American Steam Automobile Co. catered to former Stanley Steamer owners. The American Steam Cars were largely conversions, the chassis, bodies, and basic components were from Hudson Motor Car Co. The hood emblem and hubcaps bore the American Steam Car name.
1900 Houghton Runabout
Houghton Automobile Company, H. R. Houghton, Treasurer, experimented on their car forsome time before the Houghton was finally ready for production. There were not any differences in appearance or egineering than most steamers of the period to distinguish it. The engine was two cylinders and the boiler could be heated by either gasoline or kerosene. They managed to sell a few $800 runabouts and $1200 surries before closing shop in 1901.
1906 Ross Steam Automobile
S. L. . Ross was the leading race car driver and designer of race racecars at the turn of the century. The Stanley Steamer that won most races was driven by Ross. He decided to stop racing to build his own automobiles.His Ross Steamer was put into production in 1906 and was shown at the Boston Automobile Show of that year. The Boston Police Department first car was a Ross. He stoppedmaking cars in 1909 to turn his talents toward inventing.
The Ross car had a two cylinder 25 horse power steam engine. A bunson burner was connected to the acetylene gas supply to heat the 24 inch boiler and it could be quickly lit by a match. It used a Marsh pump for filling the boiler. It had a large false radiator on the front. The front seat was divided and three passengers could sit comfortably in the rear seat. The body was independant of the chassis and could be removed by four bolts. A 40 gallon water tank with several compartments was under the front seat. Side lamps, a large search light, tool boxes with tools, and any size top could be fitted. The wheel base was 108 inches and was supported on 40 inch springs in the front and 48 inch in the rear. The emergency brakes were of the internal expanding type with bronze faces expanded against steel, and operated by a lever beside the driver. They controll the car at all speeds and on sharp grades either forward or backward, and were applied directly to the rear wheels. The footbrake was operated on the drive shaft, and had renewable friction face and also gave complete control of the car. The tires were 34 inches and it weighed 2600 pounds
1913 Caldwell Funeral Automobiles
According to Beverly Rae KImes, Catalogue of American Cars, William A. Carroll Corporation was organized in 1912 with a $50,000 capital fund to build automobiles in Merrimac, MA. Evidently, these plans fell through because if they had any production, it was in New Bedford, MA.
From The 1899 June issue of the Horseless Age Magazine
Another Automobile Co. of America.
A new and important incorporation is that of the Automobile Co. of America, capital $2,500,000, principal incorporators, A. L. Barber, of the Barber Asphalt Paving Co., president; John Brisben Walker, proprietor of the Cosmopolitan Magazine, vice president; and Samuel T. Davis, Jr., treasurer. The company has purchased outright the motor carriage business of the Stanley Bros., Newton Mass., and will immediately enlarge the plant in Newton or remove it to Irvingtonon-the-Hudson, the Stanley brothers continuing as general managers. Branch factories will be established in England, Germany and France, it is said, Mr. Barber leaving for Europe to superintend their erection on the 28th inst. This corporation is organized under the laws of West Virginia, and must not be confounded with the Automobile Co. of America, with offices at 32 Broadway, whose birthplace was New Jersey. The New Jersey corporation antedates the West Virginia corporation by several months, a fact which was overlooked by the newer organization. The name will probably be changed to avoid confusion.
Messrs. Barber and Walker Make a Partition of Interests.
Amzi Lorenzo Barber and John Brisben Walker, organizers of the "Locomobile" Co. of America, have made a partition of interests, and the outgrowth is two companies instead of one. Mr. Barber retains the "Locomobile" Co. of America and the factory at Newton, Mass., and has also purchased the old Humber bicycle factory at Westboro, Mass., starting it up for the manufacture of Stanley carriages on July 17. The new officers of the "Locomobile" Co. of America are: Amzi Lorenzo Barber, president; Le Droict Langdon Barber, vice-president, and Samuel T. Davis, treasurer. By September I this company expects to be producing 15 carriages a day.
Mr. Walker has selected the name Mobile Co. of America, and takes as his share of the joint interests the Kingsland property on the Hudson River, where a factory 400 feet long and 50 feet wide will be erected for the manufacture of Stanley steam vehicles.
The Stanley brothers will occupy the position of general managers for both companies under contract for one year.
FREELAND 0. STANLEY and FRANCIS E. STANLEY, General Managers.
The placing of the Stanley Horseless Carriage on the marketthe Stanley factory is now turning out more than ten carriages per dayopens up a new era. It brings within the reach of the man of ordinary means the power to travel in his own conveyance, at a rate of speed up to forty miles an houra rate of speed limited only by the character of the roadat a cost that is almost nominal.
It is possible, with the Stanley carriagethe purchase price involves an outlay of but $600.00to live twenty miles out of the city, and to make the daily trip in and out for a charge not exceeding three cents per passenger either way. The carriage is itself a demonstrated success. It is so pronounced by those who have studied its construction and watched its performances. A single carriage has been tested over distances aggregating 10,000 miles. Its price puts it within easy reach$600, f.o.b. Its weight is less than 400 pounds. Its safety is assured. The boiler is tested up to 1,000 pounds to the square inch, but has a strength of about 3,000 pounds. It can stand for an hour, automatically regulated as to steam and fire, and be ready to start at a moment's notice. It has climbed a 36 % grade. It can run up a 14% grade, on a country road, at fifteen miles an hour. The carriage can run from 30 to 40 miles an hour according to gear used. It is not only capable of great speed, but capable also of being regulated to follow the slowest truck. It can be made ready to run at any time in less than ten minutes.
The fuel is obtainable in almost any town at 7 cents a gallon. Two persons have been carried 72 miles in the carriage for 7 cents.The machinery is of a character to be easily and inexpensively repaired in any part of the country. It is operated without jolt, or jar, or vibration. It is operated without heat or offensive odors. It is operated without noise, except when a slight puffing occurs on climbing a grade. Its operation is simple, and can be easily understood and thoroughly mastered in a short time. It needs scarcely one-twentieth of the time demanded by a horse. The carriage can carry a supply of fuel capable of taking it one hundred miles. Water is needed about every forty miles. Its appearance is light and graceful, as the illustration will show.
For further particulars address
THE LOCOMOBILE COMPANY OF AMERICA, NEW YORK OFFICE: No. 11 Broadway, 16th Floor.
Factories Newton. Ma and Westport, Ma.
A few months later: The Stanley Brothers are no longer acting as managers for The Locomobile Co. ol America, but are rusticating in the Maine woods. The Locomobile Co. are increasing their force of employees at both factories, and expect to be delivering 10 carriages a day by October 1st. They now recommend 2 1-2 inch tires for country roads
The parting was not amicable..
Initially, the company imported assembled Napier automobiles from England . From late 1904, the cars were assembled under licence in Jamaica Plain in a building formerly used by the B.F. Sturtevant Company. The cars were offered with both American and British built bodies.
The 1906 American Napier Touring Car had 60 horse power six 5" X 5" cylinder vertical motor in front and it had a sliding gear transmission; three speeds forward and reverse, and shaft drive,The frame was pressed steel with a 119 inch wheelbas. It weighed 2,900 pounds and could seat seven. The price was $ 8,000.
In 1907, the company experienced financial problems and production was halted. In 1909 a new company took over and production restarted in March that year. This lasted until 1911 when the Napier Motors Works took over the interests, but this venture barely lasted a year.
The Lenox Motor Car Company succeeded the Martell Motor Car Company who for two years tried to organize in Jamaica Plain, but failed. The first Lenox, a 27 horse power 4, was introduced at the 1911 Boston Automobile Show. The designer was Charle Bates who had designed the Morse the year before. Even though they kept scouting for a different location, production began in Jamaica Plain. In 1912, a plant in Hyde Park became available and the Lenox was made in both cities. In 1913, a 40 Horse power four and a 60 horse power six made up the Lenox models. Both cars were made in Jamaica Plain and Hyde park. In 1915, the factories moved to Lawerence and built only trucks.
1913 Lenox Automobile Advertisement
Maxim Motor Tricycle
Maxim Motor Tricycle
Hiram P. Maxim built his first car in 1895 at his home in Hyde Park. It was a Columbia with pneumatic tires with the 3 cylinder Otto motor mounted in front of him and weighing only 32 pounds and no flywheels. A switch governing the ignition current was on one of the handle bars for quick stops or sudden slowups. The battery, consisting of 9 cells for the current, was under the seat.
Col. Pope was well aware of his work and the two developed a gasoline model in 1896. Even after Columbia Automobile decided to go with the electric models, he stayed with the company to keep making gasoline models. He quit the Company in 1907 to work with T. W. Goodridge to build a new electric car in Hartford, CT.
In 1899, W.C. Bramwell, the inventor and mechanic, and John T. Robinson the finiancier, formed a partnership, Bramwell-Robinson Co, for producing Bramwell's three wheel auto-buggy. It was an air-cooled single cylinder three-wheel called the Bramwell-Robinson Sociable. Three were built and tested by 1900 with preparations to build 25 more. By the time that these were completed, Bramwell had designed two more models. These had four wheels and greater horsepower. Bramwell and Robinson's relationship ran into trouble, partly because Robinson's name was hardly mentioned in any sales brochures and at shows. Robinson started building cars under his name. Bramwell finished making the cars on hand and headed for Springfield, OH.
Robinson Motor Vehicle Company
The Robinson Motor Vehicle Company was incorporated under Delaware laws, with a capital stock of $100,000, to manufacture gasoline carriages at Hyde Park. Mass. John T. Robinson is president and general manager, and T. T. Robinson as treasurer. The new model, an 18 horse power $3,000 touring carriage, was placed on the market. Additions had been made to the plant of John T. Robinson & Co. for the manufacture of these machines
1900 Robinson Stanhope Automobile
Copied from 1900 Edition edition of the English Motor-Car Journal
Mr. John T. Robinson and Co., of Hyde Park, Boston, Mass., have sent us a photograph, reproduced herewith, of the two-seated motor-car they are exhibiting at the American Automobile Club Exhibition in New York. The frame is built of channel steel, and forms the support for the engine, transmission gear, and petrol tank. The motor, which is located in the rear of the frame, comprises two cylinders, 4 in. in diameter by 6 in. stroke. It is fitted with automatic lubrication and is water-cooled, the circulation being on the thermo-syphon system. The ignition is of the magneto-electrical type, so arranged that the speed of the engine can bo varied between 150 and 1,000 revolutions per minute. The engine is fitted with a single fly-wheel, the cranks working in an oil-tight case of aluminium. Coming now to the transmission mechanism, two speeds forward, ranging up to twenty-five miles per hour, and a reverse motion, are available. The variable speed gear adopted is that known as the Upton. From the variable gear shaft the power is transmitted to the rear axle by a single chain. The road wheels are of wood, 32 in. diameter at the front and 3 1/2 in. at the rear, shod with 3 in. and 4 in. pneumatic tires on front and rear respectively. Roller bearings are used throughout. Steering is controlled by a large hand wheel, mounted on an inclined pillar. The action is positive, and the front wheels are locked in any position of the steering wheel, thus removing all danger of a sudden change of direction when running at a fast speed. The body is hung entirely separate from the engine frame on springs, thus ensuring very easy riding. Eight gallons of petroleum spirit are carried and five gallons of cooling water, sufficient for 100 miles on ordinary roads. Ready for a trip of 100 miles, with petrol and water tanks both filled, the car, with hood, weighs under 1,800 lbs.
1900 Robinson Automobile Advertisement
1902 Robinson Rear Entrance Tonneau
The vehicle was a six-passenger tonneau with four vertical cylinder water cooled engine up front. Splash lubrication oiled the cylinders and all the engine bearings. It had separate carbureorer for each cylinder. The ignition was by contact spark with the curent generated by a magneto. It used an Upton transmission with two forward and a reverse speed. It had 34 inch artillary wheels Steering is accomplished by a wheel. It had 15 gallon gas tank and a 6 gallon tank for water which was sufficient for 125 miles with four passengers. Tools were stored in a box under the driver's seat. Lights were provided for by two Dietz lamps on each side. I t came complete with accessories which included a gon, two side lamps, a horn, and an odometer. Fully loade, it weighed1400 pounds
The Robinson vehicle is called a touring carriage rather than a racer, although it is capable of sustained high speed. It is modeled after the best French designs of its class, and has four 4x6 cylinders placed in front, where they are readily accessible. The weight of the machine is stated to be about 2,000 pounds.
Early in 1903, Pope Automobile Company bought the Robinson Motor Vehicle Company and renamed the vehicle, Pope Robinson.
1904 Pope Robinson Touring Car
The 1904 Pope Robinson was a touring model. Equipped with a tonneau, it could seat 5 passengers and sold for $5000. . The channel steel-framed car weighed 2600 lb. This advanced model, based on the Panhard, used a modern cellular radiator and competed with the top-line European vehicles.The vehicle had the regular water cooled four cylinder 24 horse power engine, but a single Longuemare carburetor instead of four separate carburetors. The car was fitted with the new Robinson shifting gear transmission, giving three speeds ahead and one reverse, with a foot brake on the transmission. The ignition was electrical and the current is furnished by a storage battery under the front seat and by a magneto running on the flywheel. The spark was advanced and the magneto and batteries were cut in and out by two switches on the top of the steering post, so that the driver can change the spark, etc., without taking his hands from the steering wheel. Outside of the lamps and horns, all the equipment were American made.
Pope Robinson closed its factory's doors at the end of 1904.
Hub Motor Car Co.
In the spring of 1906, the Hub Motor Car Co, an automobile dealership in Boston, purchased the Dorchester Branch plant of the Crest Manufacturing Co. The Crest Co. had just stopped manufacturing the Crestomobile and had merged with the Aldan-Sampson Group in Pittsfield.. The design of the 1906 Dorchester was so much like the previous Crestomobile models that the Crest people did not like this for they still had some leftover automobiles to sale. The Dorchester was a step backward in design for it had the simple one cylinder mounted on the front axle in front of the dash board and it had tiller steering.It weghed 400 pounds and sold for $400. Their 1907 model was a slightly more sophisticated and the name was changed to the Hub. The plant shut down in 1907.
The Dorchester is a neat little runabout, weighing 400 pounds, having a 4 H.P. motor and listing at $400$I per pound,I horse power to each 100 pounds of carweight. It is especially adapted to the use of physicians and persons requiring a car of simple construction. It is driven by a vertical, air-cooled gasoline engine, hung in front of the front axle. Transmission of power is through a system of chains giving two speed changes. All mechanism is supported by the axles and the springs have only the body to support. The seat is roomy, and there is ample space back of it for parcels or luggage. It is claimed by the makers that the car will run 40 miles on one gallon of fuel and that the fuel tank holds enough for three times that much running. The Dorchester has a price tag of $450.00. Weight is 400 lbs. The Dorchester runabout is marketed by Hub Motor Car Co., I91 Freeport St., Dorchester, Mass.
1898 Heymann Gasoline Runabout
The Heymann Motor Vehicle and Mfg. Co. was capitalized at $250, 000 in 1898 and started building cars in Melrose. They immediately began to produce a three cylinder, four cycle, water-cooled, 6 horsepower stanhope runabout. It had tiller steering, wooden wheels, and solid tires. Fifty cars were reported to be in the building stage prior to the year's end.. In 1900, the company was reorganized and very little was heard from them until 1904 when the new Heymann was an altogether different car. It was a 40 horse power rotary-engine touring car featuring the gearless variable speed control. No cars were made but in 1907 one was exhibited at the Boston Automobile Show. The company simply disappeared.
1901 Shatswell Steam Runabout
In 1901, H.K. Shatswell built a steam runabout with a four cylinder action motor fueled by gasoline with a flash boiler and combined feed water heater and muffler. It had a thirty gallon water tank and eight gallon fuel tank. It was offered for sale at $750.00 and larger models were available from $1200-1500. The company did sell a few more before it went into supplying parts and kits for his automobile.
1867 Advertisement for the Pope High Wheel Automobile with it factory in Boston. In 1899, the factory moved to Hartford along with the newly manfactured Columbia Automobile
The Worthley Steam Carriage
1898 Steamer built by Charles Worthley in Charlestown. Mr. Worthley used to drive this vehicle from his home in Rowley to his work in Charlestown. It was a full day's drive. (Copied from the Automobiles Built in Essex County, Hayden Shepley, 1975)
Copied from the 1897 Horseless Age Magazine
C. A. Worthley, Milk Street, Boston, Mass., is building a steam carriage for his own use. It is of tubular steel frame with tangent wire wheels, made by the Weston-Mott Co. The forward wheels are 34 inches in diameter and have ball bearings, while the rear wheels are 36 inches and have plain bearings. They are fitted with 2 inch Hartford pneumatic tires.
The rear axle is tubular. Transmission s by sprocket and chain, the sprocket being 13 inches in diameter and being placed on a box containing the compensating gears. Four Hub Roller Bearings are used on the rear axle. The engines will be placed under the seats and enclosed in a dust-proof case. The boiler will contain 270 copper tubes, and will also be placed out of sight. Both fuel and water supply will be automatic. Three chains will be employed in transmission, two running from the crank shaft to a countershaft, which in turn drives the main sprocket chain.
An air alarm and air brake will be used. Steering and speed changing will be controlled by one lever, while a second lever operates the alarm and the brake, either independently or simultaneously. Both water and steam gauges are within plain view of the operator, whose attention will be directed to any change, however slight, in the water level or steam pressure, by the ringing of a buzzer. An automatic pump furnishes the air for the brake and the alarm.
In design, the vehicle will resemble a trap.
1900 Rogers Runabout
W.S. Rogers completed his three horse power runabout in 1899. It had a maximum speed of 15 miles per hour. Its novel feature was its crank-lever contol patented by Rogers. Its advertising catalogue had a picture of his daughter in a baby carriage, the first ever not to show an automobile. He was unable to get financing to proceed into production. He moved to Keene NH in 1901 where he built his new car, the Steamobile.
1899 McCullough Runabout
W.T. McCullough, owner of the Back Bay Cycle Co, designed and built his gasoline automobile in 1899 and he had good road test results. The wheel base was 54 inches with 32 inch wheels with wire spokes. It had a steel tubular frame tiller steering with a self locking device preventing it to be knocked out of hand and a swivel joint in the front axle compensated for rough roads. All fittings on the frame were cast steel and the 2 1/2 inch pneumatics were bolted to the rim. Twin motors, each weighing 50 pounds that developed a total 4 1/2 horse power were mounted on an independent frame. Each motor was independent of the other and could work separately when needed. A crank was used for starting the motor. The electric ignition was used with the jump spark being produced by dry cell batteries. The speed of the motor could be varied from 300 to 1000 revolutions by the spark and the intake. Chains were used for transmission with one forward and two reverse with intermediate speeds being changed with the speed of the motor. A safety friction clutch operated the chains. Vehicle control was easily accomplished with controls on the steering mechanism. An equalizing gear, which distributed the strrains of the road, was a special patented feature. The total weight was 520 pounds with a maximum speed of 25 mph. Later in the year, he sold his business to U.S. Automobile Vehicle C, and joined their staff.
Whitney Motor Wagon Co.
An American Steam Carriage
Article from 1896 Horseless Age Magazine
Early in the present month a motor carriage was seen wending its way over the road from Boston to Providence and thence to Stonington, Conn., where, in consequence of a storm setting in, the traveler shipped his vehicle to New York by steamboat. It was a steam carriage built in the shop of George E. Whitney, designer and builder of marine engines, East Boston. Mass., for C. D. P. Gibson, Jersey City, N. J. The carriage has bicycle wheels and pneumatic tires, tubular steel frame, chain and sprocket drive, and is controlled in all its movements by a single lever. The engine and boiler together weigh in pounds, theengine being clamped to the side of the boiler and working vertically thereon. It is capable of developing a little over four horse-power, and is geared four to one. Gasolene is employed for fuel, and the gasolene and water tanks are both placed within the box of the carriage, behind the seat. Sufficient water can be carried to last for a journey of 4o miles. The steering wheels are pivoted at the hub, and the steering apparatus and whole front gear are fully compensated for all inequalities of the road. The weight of the rig with full supplies is about 7oo pounds, Mr. Gibson states that he had no difficulty in making good headway over all conditions of roads, which are unusually bad now in this section of New England
The 1896 Whitney Steam Wagon, called the Whitney Full Automatic Steam Wagon, was built by George E. Whitney, East Boston, Mass. The boiler was said to be entirely automatic and hence no repair as long as the water tank is supplied, that grades of 20 per cent could be ascended without difficulty, and that he had recently traveled over the common highway from Boston to Hartford in 10 hours, the distance registered by his odometer being over 130 miles. Weight was 700 pounds and the tires could be pneumatic, cushion, or solid. The burner used either kerosene, gasoline, or any common product of petroleum. Ten pounds pressure would operate the vehicle on level ground in either direction. It can carry enough fuel for sixty miles and enough water for thirty miles on ordinary roads. These wagons were fully automatic. It came with either wood or wire wheel and with either solid or pneumatic tires. The frame and gear were all of steel tubing with braised joints.
Copied From the English magazine Motor-Car Journal, 1899 Edition
Whitney in his No. 2 Steamer
Mr. Whitney has built several wagons, no two alike. The first one weighed 750 lbs., and was driven by a pair of single engines, 2 in. bore, with 4 in. stroke. This car was completed in October, 1896, and had a light chain transmission. Whitney's second carriage, built for the Whitney Motor-Wagon Company, of Boston, from which these illustrations were taken, was finished February 20th, 1897. This car also has 2-in. by 4-in. cylinders; in his later wagons Whitney uses cylinders n\ in. bore, with 4 in. stroke. All Whitney's engines are fitted with a valve-driving shifting crank-shaft, driven by chain and sprockets from the engine crank-shaft, the valve-driving crank-shaft being fitted to change its angular position relative to its driving sprocket by means of a hand-actuated, longitudinally movable, double spiral grooved reversing sleeve. The action ol this reversing gear is the same as that of the well-known shifting eccentric, the cranked
It is enough to say that Whitney has tried bevel gears, spur gears, and chains for his transmission, and that none of them exactly meet his views. He has used rear-wheel sprockets up to 20 in. diameter, 2 in. pitch, and 1 in. face, and these very heavy and amply proportioned chains and sprockets do not appear much more durable than the lighter ones before used. The very large bronze and steel spur gear and pinion he used wore out with only 500 miles' travel. Whitney is at present directing his attention principally to this point of transmission mechanism. It is to be noted that all the motor-cars here illustrated have their transmission gear open to light road dust, and it is clear to the writer that the speedy destruction of all forms of gearing applied by Whitney has been due to grinding away, not to the legitimate wear of one clean, well-lubricated metal surface upon another. The general lines of Whitney's cars vary but little from common forms of carriages. The chief peculiarities of Whitney's construction are to be found in his frame construction, his valve motion, his front axle construction, and in his steering lever.
1899 Whitney Steamer Runabout
Whitney in England
A considerable amount of information has been published that the Stanley Brothers moved to Lawrence, MA and built cars there. This is incorrect. The automobile that was made in Lawrence was first called Whitney-Stanley. The Whtiney-Stanley had patent rights to make the car and it was manufactured by the MacKay Sewing Machine Company, owned by Frank Stanley. Later, the vehicle was called MacKay Automobile
Whitney left for England in 1899 for a business trip and a vacation. He took his automobile with him and displayed it at the Exibition at the Agricultural Hall in London.
Mr. Whitney is Standing at the Right and his driver is Mr. Arthur du Cross
He was also in London to sell his patent license and he was successful in that the Brown Brothers Motor-car Company purchased it and made the Brown-Whitney model. From there he went to France and returned to the America in 1901
Thye leading exhibit at the April, 1900, Automobile Show in England was this Brown-Whitney Steamer
Built By Edward S. Clark For the Merriweather, England Fire Department
Copied from the 1900 Edition of the English Motor-Car Journal
Mr. Edward C. Clark, builder of marine engines and boilers, 272 Freeport Street, Boston, Mass., is the designer and constructor of a steam carriage, which has been in use for several months, and which, states the Horseless Age, has shown itself well adapted for road use. In style it is a dos-a-dos, and its weight is 1,200 lb, all supplies on. Wire wheels, 30 in. and 34 in. respectively. The pneumatic tires are 3 in. in diameter. The frame is of steel tubing; the front axle is tubular and the rear solid. Full allowance is made in the front of the frame for the inequalities of the road. Roller bearings are used in the rear axle. All the machinery is encased in the body, the compensating gear, brake and driving gear being all enclosed together in a dust-proof case on the hind axle. There are two handles, one for steering, the other for reversing and regulating speed. The latter works straight up and down, and the former may be turned over and used on either side of the seat. A band brake is operated by a pedal. The boiler is of the water-tube type, so constructed that no explosion can take place, and there are no large surfaces to burn out. The safety valve is set at 300 lb., and a diaphragm closes the fire down at 250 lb. The boiler is fired by a petrol burner. The double-cylinder, reversible engines develop 6 h.p., a special reversing device being employed. The supplies consist of 5 gals, of petroleum-spirit, and 20 gals, of water, and the seating capacity is five or six persons if desired.
1901 Clark Steam Automobiles
1906 Clark Automobile Advertisement
1908 Clark Steam Tonneau Automobile
The was a four-cylinder opposed horizontal motor located crosswise under the body. The flash generator ws under the hood. The toneau was priced at $3,500.00 and a runabout was $2,500.00..
1904 Rotary Runabout
The Rotary and sometime known as the Intrepid was a American Automobile with a strange engine with two crankshafts, two connecting rods and one piston. Despite the name the Rotary engine it was not a revoling engine. Rotary Motor Vehicle was built in 1904 and 1905. The Rotary automobile was produced as a roadster only. The company specialized in boat engines, but they got into the automobile business with their strange and unorthodox one cylinder eight horsepower engine.
The Rotary engine was claimed to be completely vibrationless and was entirely different from other engines of 1904 and 1905. Two cylinders and one crankshaft was the accepted theory for engine construction. However the Rotary produced an engine that worked very well with two crankshafts. The crankshafts were contra-rotating, weighted and each had a piston rod. Perfect synchronization was necessary in order to produce smoth easy power.
1900 New England Electric Automobile
The New England Electric Vehicle Co. produced the New England Electric car from 1899 to 1900. Only a few hundred two-passenger Runabout New England Electric cars were made. The New England Electric was a subsidery of the Electric VBehicle Company, Hartford, CT, and was offered for lease purposes. The larger models were made at Hartford. In 1901, New England Electric were offered at a private sale. By the end of the year, all crs were sold and the factory closed down.
The running gears in both models wqere flexible with standard track, built of heavy tubing and fitted with wooden wooden. In the runabout, roller bearings were used in the gear, and the wheels were fitted with 25x3-inch New York Long Distance tires. The wheel base was amply long to insure easy riding.The boiler was steel, 17 inches in diameter with 15-inch tubes. The burner was fitted with a pilot light, and requires no torch in starting. The fire was controlled from the seat. The engine was of a new and special design. It had slide valves and link motion with the cylinders.The main features of the engine were that it was dust proof, and that its working parts ran in a bath of oil. Water was fed to the boiler by an eccentric-operated plunger pump located on the end of the engine shaft. The engine and boiler were both hung on iron frames.The water tank held 40 gallons. The carriage was built to withstand hard usage, and not only comfortable and stylish, but also capable of fast speed and steep hill climbing. The weight of the vehicle was 1,100 pounds.
The 1902 was built for carrying eight passengers, or which may be used to carry trunks or any baggage by removing the two rear seats. The first carriage of this model was built for George E. McQuesten, of Boston, and has been proved to have been capable of carrying 1.800 pounds with ease; it was fast and was an ideal business carriage..
1902 Binney-Burnham Runabout with Fold-down Front Seat
The new design's wheel base was 6 feet 10 inches. 4 feet 8 inches. The body was large and strongly built, with a comfortable seat which could be closed. A large tool box was provided and a place for two. It had side panel doors. The gasoline tank held 14 gallons, the water tank 48 gallons. Gasoline and air tanks were pressed steel.
The Lyman touring car, which is built on order only by C. F. Lyman, was a high powered de luxe vehicle. It had a 4 cylinder 35 horse power verticle engine on a 100 inch wheel base. The tread was 55 inches with 36 artillery type wheels and 4 inch tires. Elliptic springs were used on fron and back. Using a change speed gear of the indivisual clutch type, it had three forward speeds and reverse. A tank under the front seat held 23 gallons of gas. It could be easily converted from a limousine to a touring tonneau. The weight was 2800 pounds and it was priced at $6750.
A few months later, Lyman teamed with Burnham for the Lyman-Burnham automobiles.
Following the departure of Binney from Binney and Burnham, Burman had a new partner, C. Fredrick Lyman. The Binney and Burnham was a steam car, but Lyman and Burnham decided to make gasoline cars. The new cars were built for them at Fore River Ship and Engine Co. in Quincy. Only offered was a touring model with rear entrance five passenger tonneau. Its engine was a water cooled 12-15 horse power. The 78 inch wheel base frame was made of angler steel and the body was a steel frame with wood and aluminum panels. The price was $2000. In 1905, they quit the automobile business. After the breakup with Burnham, Lyman built his automobiles for a very short while
The 1904 model had a 78 inch wheel base with 30 inch wood wheels that had 3 1/2 inch Goodrich tires, semi-elliptic springs, two-cylinder 12-15 H.P., vertical water-cooled engine. It had a two-speed sliding gear transmission with the high speed and barke operated by one lever and the low speed and reverse by another. Five passenger with a body weight of 1850 lbs. and a price tag of $2000.00 with accessories.
1904 Lyman and Burnham Touring
1904 Lyman and Burnham Automobile Advertisement
1903 Radford Surrey
R.A. Radford built a 35 horse power four cylinder and a 45 horse power car for a Boston customer. Both were touring. The one shown was the larger on a 102 inch wheel base and a fringed top. It could hold eight passengers. Except for the transmission, tires, and muffler, they were made entirely by Radford.
Prior to the Quinsler Runabout and building cab bodies, The Quinsler & Co. of Boston, MA was a carriage builder, repairing horse drawn carriages and harnesses. The Quinsler & Co. was located at 26-34 Cambria St. Boston, MA They continued with body building.
1904 Quinsler Autombile
The 1904 Quinsler Runabout with a removable third seat was made Quinsler and Company, Boston. It had wooden wheels and wheel steering and a continuous fenders and running board.The price was $950.
Graham Equipment Co.
The Graham Equipment Co., Boston, Mass., have 10 steam carriages which they can deliver immediately. These carriages seat two or four persons, weigh 800 pounds, have Whitney boiler, engine and steering handle, carry water for 25 miles and gasoline for 100 miles. The maximum speed is 15 to 20 miles an hour, and the trucks and machinery are entirely independent of the bodies.
Sturtevant Mill Company, Dorchester section of Boston, built its first experimental car in 1902 and a four cylinder experimental followed in 1904. The 1905 was a six cylinder and the first to be advertised.
The 1905 Sturtevant touring car was a side entrance tonneau with pressed steel frame and shaft drive to the rear axle. The springs were 4 feet in length and it had 34" wheels with tires furnished as ordered. The motive power is furnished by two sets of three cylinder with making it a six cylinder opposed engine hving 38-45 horse power. These set on an aaccessory frame that held the engine. The engine was water cooled with a larged finned radiator in front. The steering was done by wheel and had three forward speeds and reverse. The control of the Sturtevant car was absolutely unique among automobile controlling systems. For all forward speeds there was but one controlling device concerned, in addition to the steering wheel. This was a foot button conveniently located under the driver's right foot, and this button performed a number of functions. When the motor was running with the main throttle closed it was controlled by the governor at a speed of about 220 revolutions per minute. The Sturtevant with its unique transmission shaft was a nuimber of discs that acted as a pneumatic braking system and a automatic clutch mechanism makiong the Sturtevant a completely automatic driving automobile. It was done by putting and releasing pressure by the foot button. One peculiarity of the automatic clutch system is that it was impossible for the driver to stall his engine, as.should the engine speed fall below 300 revolutions per minute, due to any cause of overload, the low speed clutch would automatically disengage, and only engage again when the engine is accelerated to a sufficient point.
Its unique system was patented. Evidently, the cars were made for demonstration purposes and to sell its patent rights for only a very few were made.
1906 Sturtevant Cut Showing the Mechanics of the Car
After quitting the automobile business, the company started manfacturing electrical appliances. Sown above is 1917 advertisement for its vacuum cleaner.
Boston High Wheel Automobile
Copied from the 1908 Cycle and Automobile Magazine
The Boston High wheel Manufacturing Co. has brought out a high wheel car in aroundabout and surrey models, having the following features: Motor, 12 horse power, air cooled, horizontal opposed, placed transversely in the rear of the body, with valves mechanically operated and the air draft furnished by fan llywheel. A Schebler carburetor furnishes the mixture and a pressure feed oiler supplies the pistons, the other engine parts being splash lubricated. The forwardly projecting crank shaft carries a bevel pinion, which may be placed in mesh at will with either one of two bevel gears on a roller bearing cross shaft, producing respectively forward and reverse motions. On this shaft is carried one of the pair of aluminum telescopic pulleys which constitutes the change speed gear. Forward of the cross shaft is located another roller bearing transfer shaft carrying the othrt telescopic pully of the change gear. The differential to the right of those and the wheel driving sprocket upon its ends.
The type in which the effective diameter of one is increased as that of the other is decreased, a mechanical connection maintaining the belt length equal under all driving conditions. Each pulley is made in halves, being divided in a plane at right angles to the shaft, and, as the working surfaces of the halves are conical, a V-shaped groove is always maintained as the halves telescope, in which runs the belt. This belt is of mineral tanned leather and of a trapezoidal section, or may be a V-shaped fabric covered chain. When the pulley on the first cross shaft is at its smallest diameter and that on the second cross shaft at its largest diameter the lowest gear is provided and vice versa. When the belt is loose in the first shaft pulley no power is transmitted, and the effect is that of a disengaged clutch. By a peculiar method of construction of the halves of each telescopic pulley the belt has just as good a hold when the pulley is in its small diameter condition as when fully opened out. The accompanying cut, showing the aluminum ribs upon which the belt bears, will make this plain.
A gear as low as 50 to 1 between the engine and rear wheels can be had, if desired, in extremely heavy work. Starting of the car is produced by the first motion of the control lever, which causes the belt to engage in the V-grooves of the pulleys, and, as the lever is moved further and further, higher gears are obtained until the maximum is reached.
The drive wheels are 44 and 48 inches in diameter in front and rear respectively, and 4 inch solid tires are used. The wheels are considerably dished, and their hubs are of special construction, carrying the sprockets integral therewith and close to the vehicle frame, to avoid splashing mud. A special form of parallel roller bearing, manufactured by this company, which is also a thrust bearing, is here employed. The inside surfaces of the sprocket castings form the drums of internally expanding brakes. Adjustable distance rods are provided for the purpose of adjusting the roller drive chains. A sprocket ratio of 4 to I is used. The front axle is of tubular construction and the rear axle is an I section forging dropped in the middle. Steering is by means of an irreversible wheel mechanism. A 40 inch platform spring is provided in front, with 44 inch full elliptics in the rear. The car clears the road by 18 inches and a large carrying space, the full size of the hood, is provided, as well as an extra wide seat. In order to secure traction on slippery roads, a differential lock, operated by a pedal, is supplied.
Liquid Air and Power Co
Liquid Air Power and Automobile Co.
Liquid Air Runabout
The Liquid Air Power Company of Bodton and New York was one of the biggest scam companies at the turn of the century. The men that were behind this ssheme were George Code, Boston, Milton Chase, Haverhill, and the "Genious of Two Continents", Hans Knudsen, Denmark. For an entire year, the automobile magazines were writing about this fabulous car while the men were traveling over the country selling stocks. When reporters wanted to see the factory, they were given the runaround from one location to the other. The only evdence produced was a drawing of the car. THey finally came forward with a prototype of an ordinary car. Bankruptcy soon followed with a $1.5 million dollar debt and $7,500 in assests.
The Ariel was made by the Ariel Motor Company and was exhibited at the Armory show in New York in January, 1905. The owners were Charles B.Lamont, Charles B. Palmer, and Joseph P. Allcott, none of who had any automobille experienceI However, it was a very good automobile. It attracted much attention by its pleasing and distinctive appearance, the oval radiator and distinctively shaped cast aluminum dash serving to give the car an individuality of its own. In construction details, the car also possessed many points of individuality and novelty, yet all tending to simplicity of design and reliability of operation. The engine was 30 horsse power four-cylinder, fou-cycle having cylinders 4 1/2 inches in diameter and four inch stroke of pistons. The ignition is by high tension jump-spark from a quad coil, supplied by storage battery. The timer is very accessibly located on the front end of the cam shaft. The spark advance is by means of a lever on steering post.. The cooling system was by water, circulated by means of a gear pump located on the vertical shaft at the rear of the engine, A mechanical force-feed oiler being employed, delivering through two feeds, one into each half of the crank case. This simple lubricating system has proved itself perfectly efficient. and satisfactory in these cars. 100 inch wheelbase, 33 inch wheels and tires. Weight 1975 and price $2,500
1906 Automobile Journal Advertisement
1905 Ariel Advrtisement
1n 1906, the company moved to Bridgeport, CT and its name was changed to Maryland.
1905 Forest Side Entrance Tonneau
The Forest Motor Car Company firm had been manufacturing engines in size from two to one hundred horsepower. In 1905 they introduce their Forest automobile. Its brochures stated that no matter how good the body looked, it was no good without a good engine. It was a five passenger touring car with a three speed sliding gear transmission. The engine was a twin with exceptional long 7 inch stroke with a 4 1/2" bore. which generated 20 horse power and was good for 40 mph. The price was $1200 with accessories. It was a short lived venture with Forest continuing as a dealership.
1898 Eaton Electric Stanhope
Howard Eaton, a well known electrical engineer, built his small Eaton Electric automobile in six week prior his exhibiting it at the Mechanics Fair in Boston. After the fair he opened an officei n Boston. The next year he changed the name and office location tin Boston with a claim that he had capital ization of $500,000, but he had only $40 in his wallet. As the politicians of today would say " I thought that I had more, but I must have not noticed my account lately." He made few automobiles that were shipped to England, but he declared bankruptcy in 1900.
Strathmore Automoble Co.
1900 Strathmore Automobile
A cut from the Advertisement
1901 Strathmore Stanhope
In 1900, the International Automobile Co. of Boston, Ma. had changed its name to Strathmore Automobile Co. so as not to be confused with several other companies that used International in their titles. The Strathmore Automobile Co. had been incorporated under Maine laws with $1.000,000 capital. The incorporates are Augustus H. Patterson, of Peabody, Mass.; Garret D. W. Clark, Salem, Mass., and Joseph O. Banning, Boston, Mass. The company's office is in the Albion Bldg., Boston, Mass. Steam vehicles will be manufactured. This company advertised two-passenger cars and delivery cars. Steam as well as gasoline-driven vehicles were listed. The cars were tiller steered and chained driven had full eliptical springs front and rear. The cars that were built was customer cars only.
Copied from the 1900 Horseless Age Magazine
Illustrated here is a new design of two-seated vehicle built by the Strathmore Automobile Co., Boston, Mass. It weighs 1,400 pounds and is driven by a steam motor rated at six h. p. It Is intended primarily for city use, but is built with great strength and flexibility of frame, so that it can be used for touring also. The elevated position of the rear seat will be noticed. It Is certainly less accessible than a lowerseat would be, but It gives its occupants a good outlook ahead. The boiler.it will be seen, Is hung fairly low, and the engine is apparently over the rear axle. The frame of the running gear is elevated considerably above the axles, and tubular braces extend to the outer ends of the front axle and to the bearings of the rear axle. The arrangement and bracing of the front axle appear to be nearly identical with those adopted in the Whitney carriage, patent No. 652,940, published in The Horseless Aoe of July 18
Bay State 40
The Baystate Auto Company,Boston, MA was organized in January of 1906 and had its first car on the road in January of 1907. The general manager was Russell Drisko who had been involved with automobiles for six years previously. The designer was George Temple who had an extensive background in the automobile field and this was the first car of his own. The two formed the company.
1908 Bay State 40 Automobile
The wheel base was 122 inches with a 56 inch tread and the tire sizes were 34 inches. It had a verticle four-cycle, four-cylinder, water-cooled engine that gave 40 H. P on the road. The progressive sliding change gears gave three forward speeds and a reverse, with bevel gear drive to the floating divided rear axle. Tonneau body waith a side door opening to the front, two folding seats to face all seven passengers forward. It weighed 2900 lbs. and had a price tag of $3,750.00 that included all accessories. The top was $175.00 extra. It was a large and very impressive . automobile. It was designed by George Temple of Boston. The financial situation of 1907-1908 was the undoing of the Bay State automobile.
Two views of the 1903 Newcomb
Copied from the 1903 Horseless Age Magazine
The novel feature of the Newcomb was there was no hands use other than steering and throttle use. The boiler was coiled type with no water gauge, so there was no need to be watching this device. The steam was delivered to the engine with a uniform temperature and pressure, irrespective the load conditions. The pressure and temperature could be adjusted,but once done, there was very slight variation. The generator consisted of a three-quarter inch steel tubing. The boiler efficiency was 78 per cent. The quanity of water never varied more than three percent. The fuel is fed to the burner by a pump.
The engine was a simple, single acting three cylinder vertical one with splash lubrication. The transmission in the rear axle was affected through a shaft with universal joints with bevel gears. The weight was 1,100 pounds with a six hourse power engine. The water supply was enough for forty miles per gallon of 2.7 miles and fuel averaged 20 miles per gallon. The vehicle design was simple with a greatly reduced amount of piping. A number of pantents have been approved.
1914 Two Passenger Salvador
Salvador Richards built his factory for his Salvador automobile in 1914. His first one was cycle car powered by a four cylinder water cooled engine built in a unit with a three speed selective transmissionm most unusual for a cycle car. Shaft drive and worm and gear was used for steering were featured and had a wheel base of 100 inches. It was priced at $485. In May he anounced that he had three cars made and running on the streets and that his Salvador Motor Co. would be able to make a limited number of deliveries. Limited was the correct term for he ceased production by year's end. He returned in 1915 setup his S.J.R. Automobile Co It was the same car with a bigger engine and he had the same results with it as his former model.
1915 Advertisement in The Automobile Magazine
1920 Two Seat Victory Roadster
The 1920 Victory was a super version of the Model T Ford. It was made by the Victory Motor Car Company, Boston. The Rajo head turned the Ford engine into an Over Head Valve four that delivered 40 horse power and the wheel base was extended to 115 inches and had a three-speed sliding-gear transmission. Either a two passenger or a four-passenger broughm were featured and each with disc wheels. It was shown at the Boston Automobile Show in 1920. 1921 was the last year of production.
1925 Mayfair Sedan
The Mayfair was exhibited at the 1925 Boston Automobile Show. It was made of redone Model T Ford parts and only used new parts when it was necessary. The project production numbers were for three thousand, but only a few were made. Who wanted to buy a used Ford at their price? Ten people did.
1921 Colonial Six Touring
The Colonial was a large striking looking automobile with a 130 inch wheel base, but the running gear was of the ordinary with a six cylinder Beaver engine. Four body styles were available, each with disc brakes. It was made by the Colonial Motors Corporation. The car was a great looking automobile, but the engine was an ordinary Beaver six cylinder, but the price of $5,000 did not indicate it. The Colonial was introduced at the worst time in the automobile industry. One big name company after another were cutting prices in half in order to survive. A few did for a few years longer. The Colonial was doomed from the start, but they estimated five hundred cars a year were to be built, but this was far from reality for only a very few were made and the company closed down in 1922.
1904 Country Club Tonneau
The Country Club was built and financed by H.M. Woodward and he was the inventor of the pneumatic speed change, a three speed sliding gear transmission operated by compressed air from one of the cylinders. There was nothing esle to distinguish it and after a few sales, it was closed down. Afterwards he made the Country Club auto boats.
1905 Ormond Steamer Side Entrance Tonneau
The Limited Motor and Vehicle Company,s slogan for their Ormond Steamer was 'built-Not Manufactured" seemed to be an effective one. They offered as a large touring with canopy top and flared fenders in 1905 for $3000. A four cylinder 25 Horse power engine powered the car. Kersene was used for the burner and the boiler was the flash type. Its novel feature was a swinging and self locking steering wheel. It was on exhibition in the 1905 New York automobile show. A sales office was set up in New York, but no sales were made and very few in Boston. The company ceased operation before the year's end.
1906 Mc Phail
James McPhail, a reporter for the Boston Globe made his steamer in 1906 from components that he had bought from outside suppliers.He had spent some considerable amount of time measuring cars on the streets and from automobile exhibits in the area. I was a standard runabout which he said that cost him $300, but he was very pleased with it.
Charles W.. Holtzer, a manufacturor of electric devices, and his partner, Georgw E. Cabot owned the Holtzer-Cabot Electric Company in Braintree. They owned the telephone exchange in that city. In 1892, they built an electric automobile for a customer of theirs. He built another one for another customer, S. D. Warren, in 1895. All of the parts were made in England and put together at his factory. He announced that he would build others and apparently a few were built.
This seven passenger vehicle was designed and manufactured for a wealthy customer of the company. It had 44, 250 amps per hour chloride cells arranged in four groups of 11 cells. The weight was 5100 pounds. Bicycle-type handle bars was used for steering. It had a footpedal when press would lock the front wheels in any position. . The body was built by Chauncey Thomas and Co. of Boston.
1914 Peter Pan Cycle Car
Unlike most cycle cars, Peter Pan, the engine was its own, an over head valve water cooled 24 horse power built by th Wollaston Foundry who shared the same factory building. Both a 4 pasenger touring and a 2 passenger roadster were offered on the same 106 inch chassis with a 46 inch tread. A channel steel frame, suspension by semi-eliptical springs in front with full-floating cantilever springs in the rear. It had a three speed selective transmission and a final drive by shaft were especially progressive features for a cycle car. It was attractively priced at $450. But by this time, cycle cars were llosing their bbuyers and the Peter Pan factory closed in 1915.
1905 Ross Steam Tonneau
Louis S. Ross was one of the best race car drivers in the country at the turn of the century. His less than a minute speed for a mile was the first in the country. In 1906, he had6quit racing and designed his own steamer in Newtonville. His new Ross car was on exhibit at the Boston Automobile Show. He never incorporated a company. He stopped his car production in 1909 to pursue his inventions.
The Ross Steam Car was driven by a 25 horsepower 2-cylinder steam engine. The manner of firing up was a novel feature, as the hand torch or alcohol drip cups, so common to steam cars, were entirely dispensed with. A small Bunson burner was connected with the acetylene gas supply, and can be ignited instantly with a match, regardless of whether conditions or high winds, and in a few seconds the main fire would ignite. A regular pilot light was also fitted, the gas jet being brought into use only in ease the car had not been used for several days.It had a 24" boiler under the hood. A fusible plug insured against boiler explosion. This plug had a steel shell and was easily removable. An auxiliary Marsh steam pump was provided for filling the boiler when the water became low or either pump was inoperative from any cause. the throttle control was placed on top of the wheel, and connected by rod inside of steering column. The engine reverse was a lever at the side, and close to emergency brake lever. The body, made of wood was entirely independent of the chassis, and could be removed removing four bolts. A 40-gallon water tank was under the front seat..The wheel base was 108 inches with 34 inch wheels and 4 inch tires.Weight was 2600 pounds.
1900 Knight Steamer Runabout
Frank Knight had owned a machine shop in Hudson, when he suddenly decided to sell it and go to Alaska in search for gold. In 1899, with no gold and broke he returned to Hudson to enter the automobile manufacturing business. He borrowed $2,000 and with his two sons decide to build a steam car. Before his going to Alaska, he had invented a steam boring machine, a water boiler, and a two-cylinder engine. After he and his three sons worked feverously for several months, his machine was finished and F.D. Knight and Son was formally organized. Brochures with hand drawn automobiles were printed with eight examples of his steamer with a small runabout for $800. Enough capital was not realized to build a factory to produce his automobile Father and sons went into automobilin repairing.
1906 Berkshire Touring
William J. Mercer, Frank Wyland, Fred Cooley, and Clarence Hollister were th men behind the building the Berkshire automobile in 1903. I was ready for the market in 1905, but it had three different company names in the meantime. Berkshire Automobile Company was finally chosen. They had also invented a transmission that was used in the car. This was a total disaster for the company for the transmission was a failure and the company shut down in late 1907. It was decided that no ore cars would be made unless the community provided funds. They did not. Thirty cars were built in 1909 for the 1910 season. Again in 1910, they threatened to move to Hartford, CT. Still, no money was offered. Finally, they moved to Cambridge in 1912.The factory closed in late December of that year. 150 Berkshire automobiles had been built.
The Berkshire Touring Car was a 30-35 horse power four cylinder vertical motor in front, slidding gear transmission; three speeds forward and reverse; double side chain drive; pressed steel frame. ; seats five. It was a four cylinder water cooled side chain drive machine. Ignition was jump start from 4 coils and a storage battery. It had a honey comb radiator. The car is fitted with a cast aluminum curved dash, upon which are mounted only the spark coil and the grease cup for the lubrication of the change gear bearing. The Berkshire transmission is of the internal individual expanding friction type. It had 30 inch wheels with 3 1/2 inch tires, and were mounted upon roller bearings. The frame is made of pressed steel and it is narrowed in front and carried elliptic springs at both ends. They are on a wheel base of 100 inches and a 54 inch tread. Both axles are solid circular section in the middle and at the ends where the springs are attached. Both sets of brakes acted on rear wheel hubs. The body was of the side entrance type and was designed to carry five passengers. It was of laminated wood construction and upholstered in leather. Total weight was 2,300 pounds. $3250.00 price tag
1907 Stilson Touring Auomobile
Clarence Hollister, who was a former partner in the Berkshire operations and was the inventor of the Hollister transmission that was used in the Berkshire, decided to build his own car. It was backed by a local jeweler, Herbert Stilson and the company was the Stilson Motor Car Company. It was also built in the Berkshire factory. Unfortunately, because it used the same transmission as the Berkshire, it suffered the same fate and it ceased operation in 1909
Clarene Hollister, who was a former partner in the Berkshire operations and was the inventor of the Hollister transmission that was used in the Berkshire, decided to build his ownd car. It was backed bya local jeweler, Herbert Stilson and the company was the Stilson Motor Car Company. It was also built in the Berkshire factory. Unfortunately, because it used the same transmission as the Berkshire, it suffered the same fateand it ceased operation in 1909.
Article and photograph were Copied from the 1908 edition of the Horseless Age Magazine
The 1906 Stilsons were a 6 cylinder touring and a limousine with 50-60 horsepower. The frame was pressed steel with a subframe for the entire power plant. The semi-elliptic springs were made of vanadium on front and back. it had a 126 inch wheel base with 36 inch wheels. A universal joint was between the clutch and gear box, Thrfee forward and reverse were provided by the selective gear box. A 23 gallon tank was in the rear. Fully loaded, the car weighed 3400 pound.
Alden Sampson Automobile Company
1904 Alden Sampson Automobile Touring
Because the Moyea Automobile Co. of Rye, NY had not finished their factory for the 1904 model, Alden Sampson Machine Company was given the contract to build its new prototype. Alden Sampson was so impressed with the Moyea that he bought the company and moved it to Pittsfield and used his name for the new model. It was a four cyclinder touring car with a King of Belgium body from Springfield Cornice Works. King of Belgium seats were so named for the King of Belgium, who was a very tall man, had a French automobile company build a car with large enough seats that he could sit comfortably. It had a $3750 price tag. Lesser decorations could be had at a cheaper price. These were top quality cars and if he had kept making them, he would have been well known in the automotive field. However he decide to build trucks. He died in 1911 and his company was sold to a Detroit firm.
1908 Sampson Truck
1902 Taunton Runabout, closed body
The Taunton was steam touring car designed to carry either two or four passengers, a folding seat being provided in front, which could also be used as a luggage carrier.The boiler was of the water tube type with superheating coil. The engine was a three cylinder one, 2x3 inches, with a single eccentric and crank, without stuffing boxes, slides and crossheads, and entirely inclosed. The carriage was equipped with wire wheels and pneumatic tires, brake drums were fastened directly to the wheels, and the brakes which act on these drums are said to be double acting. The drive was chainlesswith the engine being geared directly to the rear axle by bevel gears. All the parts of the driving gear were completely inclosed. The tank capacities were as follows: Water, 40 gallons; fuel, 20 gallons; lubricating oil, 1 gallon. The weight of the vehicle'complete, with tanks filled, was 1.200 pound.
1910 E.M.F. Automobile for the Taunton, MA Fire Department
1898 Altham Motor Carriage Autobuggy
After expiermenting with his hydrocarbon motor for two years, George Altham was ready to put his automobile into production. He had now refined his engined to an aircooled model. He built several cars before he closed his doors in 1899.
The four Buffum cars photos and advertisement were provided by Paul C. Berry
1904 Buffum Advertisement
The 1905 Buffum had a four cylinder horizontal 16 horse power gasoline motor arranged with its two pairs of cylinders in opposition and placed under a bonnet in front. Jump spark ignition was used, and a special magnetic interrupter, which was claimed to produce a continuous stream of sparks, thus making ignition very positive. The cooling system used a rotary pump of the gear type. There is a separate pump for each pair of cylinders. The radiators were in the extreme front of the vehicle were composed of separable sections. It had two speeds forward and a reverse. The steering column could be placed in any position. The wheel base was 93 inches 32 inch wood or wire wheels with 3 1/2 inch tires. Both gasoline and water tanks were carried below the floor and could be made for any capacity. It had a muffler for each pair of cylinders. The tonneau seat was detachable, leaving a capacious trunk platform. In fact, the body could be completely removed, exposing the whole mechanism to view. These vehicles were built on order only.
No Photographs could be found
Copied from the May 14, edition of the 1902 Horseless Magazine
The new gasoline tonneau built by J. H E. Buurrassa for T. I. Smith & Co.. North Attlebro, Mass., is now receiving its first road tests. The 8 horse power motor has two cylinders, and is placed in front under a bonnet. The Longuemare carburetor and the Brown-Lipe compensating gear are employed. The wheel base is 73 inches. Two speeds forward. 20 and 6 miles respectively, are provided. A dynamo and dry battery furnish the spark. The gasoline motor is also referred to as a hydrocarbon motor, an internal combustion motor or an explosion motor. These last three terms are broader than "gasoline motor," i. e., they cover some motors that are not gasoline motors, but as far as automobile motors are concerned they are practically synonymous with "gasoline motor."
The primary principle on which the gasoline motor operates is as follows:
Gasoline vapor mixed with air to form an explosive mixture is introduced into a cylinder in which a piston can move back and forth. The mixture is compressed in the cylinder behind the piston so as to occupy only one-third to one-quarter the space it would occupy at atmospheric pressure. The mixture is then ignited, generally by an electric spark. The combustion of the mixture increases its pressure about four times, and under this increased pressure the piston is forced outward, and power is transmitted to a crank to which the piston is connected.
It will be seen from this that various operations succeed each other in the cylinder. The combustible mixture is first introduced; it is then compressed, ignited and expanded, and finally the gas which forms the product of combustion must be exhausted. These various operations are repeated periodically, and a single repetition of all of them is called a cycle. The various operations comprising a cycle may be performed in relatively varying periods of time, and the whole cycle may be performed in the time corresponding to different angular motions of the crank, which gives us the various cycles that are spoken of in connection with gasoline engines.
A two-cycle engine is an engine in which all the operations in the cylinder comprising a cycle are performed in one revolution of the crank or in two strokes of the piston. A four-cycle engine is an engine in which these operations are performed once in two complete revolutions of the crank or for four strokes of the piston. The gasoline engines used on automobiles are nearly always of the four-cycle type. The four-stroke cycle is often called the Otto cycle or the Beau de Rochas cycle. It was first suggested by Beau de Rochas and first practically applied in engines by Otto.
U.S. Electric Stanhope
The United States Automobile Company was organized in 1899 by Frank Mossberg , who owned a large bell company. Production began near his bell factory, but because the financing that the local business men had promised never came, he pulled out. Another company called the United States Co. began producing the automobile but soon closed down with only a ver few made. Other atempts to build a gasoline car met with little success
1902 Bliss Tonneau
The Bliss automobile could be had with either a steam or gasoline engine and was made by A.H. Bliss and his son F.H. Bliss. The drive to the axle was by spur gearing, but in 1902 a tonneau with a shaft drive invented by the Blisses. It had a 12 horse power gasoline engine made by Edward Sholtz. Only two cars have known to be completed. The steam car that they made was destroyed by fire and they returned to their jewelry business
Napoleon Bliss also of Attleboro, relationship to the father and son team unknown, made a 1903 gasoline car and shared a booth with the Buffam Company at the 1903 Boston Automobile Show. No other automobiles are known to have been built.
Hertel or Oakman
1898 Oakman Runabout
THE HERTEL MOTOR.CARRIAGE.
Those who were present at the Times-Herald race, at Chicago, in November, 1895, will recall the Hertel motocycle, a light vehicle, the main frame of which was made by joining two bicycles together at a sufficient distance apart to afford seating capacity. This little vehicle was not entered in the race, as it was manifestly unfitted for such work, particularly under the trying conditions of road and weather which prevailed there at that time. But it was favorably commented upon by the experts gathered together upon the occasion, and has served the inventor as a model for further study and experiment until from it has grown the light road carriage herewith shown, weighing only about 500 pounds, capable of the highest speed, and propelled by a jacketless gasolene motor. The general construction still retains the outlines of the bicycle, the front wheels being suspended from bicycle forks to relieve the steering lever of shock and jar. The rear or drive wheels are considerably larger than the front ones. The motor is horizontal and has two cylinders and developes about 3 HP. It is not encased, in order to permit a free circulation of air around it to carry away the surplus heat. The speed of the motor is variable through the intake, like the majority of vehicle motors now in the market. It is started from the seat by pressing a button. Transmission is direct to an inner rim of the drive wheels, no belts, gears or chains being employed. The control of the vehicle is in one lever, with the exception of the brake, which is operated by the foot. The manufacturers of the Hertel Carriages are the Oakman Motor Vehicle Co., Greenfield, Mass., who are preparing to turn them out in quantities.
Richard Oakman was the president of a cutlery and silverware company in Greenfield, MA, but he wanted to expand into the new field of automobile manufacture and sales. Oakman saw Max Hertel, a former classmate of Carl Benz (of Mercedes-Benz in Germany) piloting a gas powered car on a Chicago Street in 1895. Impressed and intrigued, he hired Hertel to oversee production of the Oakman Automobile. This Oakman Motor Vehicle Company ad, shown below, emphasized the car's easy operation (the woman drives with one hand on the tiller) and its carriage-like elegance. Manufacturing expenses doomed the Oakman Automobile and it ceased operation in 1900.
1899 Hertel Runabout
Article from the July issue of the 1899 Horseless Age Magazine.
The Oakman Motor Vehicle Co., Greenfield, Mass., is undergoing reorganization at Philadelphia. On Thursday last the Oakman Motor Vehicle Co., of America, was incorporated at Dover, Delaware, with a capital of $5,000,000, divided into 100,000 shares of $50 each. The new company will acquire all the patents, good will and property of the Oakman Motor Vehicle Co., of Greenfield, and will equip a large plant in the vicinity of Philadelphia. The directory is composed of the following gentlemen: R. N. Oakman, Greenfield, Mass.; Charles H. Cook, Trenton, N. J.; Richard G. Oellers, Philadelphia; Col. James H. Lambert, Philadelphia; Theodore P. Gittcns, Philadelphia; William Weinert, Philadelphia; Job. H. Jackson, Jackson & Sharp Co., Wilmington, Del.; Creed M. Fulton, Washington, D. C., and ex-Senator Jno. H. Patterson, Lancaster. Pa. Max E. Hertel. of Greenfield, and Thomas Shaw, of Philadelphia, will be the consulting engineers. Of the capital stock of the company $500,000 will be 7 per cent, preferred stock, subscribers to which receive an equal amount of common stock, full paid and non-assessable.
August Issue of the 1899 Horseless Age Magazine
The Oakman motor Vehicle Co. expects to retain and enlarge its present plant at Greenfield to develop it to supply the New England trade.
Article about Clark Automobile Auction Company, Long Island, NY, 1963
One successful bidder took the gavel at $2,500 for the 1899 Oakman-Hertel runabout. This two-cylinder, 2 1/2-hp vehicle operated on pulley drive. Said Clark, The basic plan of this little car was derived from two bicycle frames with the rest of the car in between. This fine example of one of Americas earliest machines was found in a garage in Lynn, Mass., years ago by John Leathers who purchased it for D. Cameron Peck. Cameron had the leather, solid rubber, and coachwork restored. Mechanically, it has never been touched.
1922 Wing MIdget Automobile
Crest Manufacturing Company began tomake engines in 1900 and automobile parts. They decided to enter the complete automobile business in 1901 and built their Crestmobile from Crest parts. A three-wheeler was first offered, but soon ceast. A single-cylinder, air-cooled engine was mounted on the front axle with chain drive to the rear axle. Shaft-driven Crestmobiles were offered in 1903. It was claimed that the company had built 1,000 cars by then, which was to say the least, a fabrication of facts. When most of the companies were going to a higher-powered, two-cylinder engines, Crest was claiiming that their single cylinder was better and more powerful. The public did not buy this argument and Crestmobiles soon lost favor. In 1904 and 1905, Crest exhibited two-cylinder cars, but by that time, Ford had a better car that was cheaper. Crest was taken over by Alden-Sampson in 1905.
The Crest Manufacturing Company, Cambridgeport, Mass.. recently brought out a light gasoline runabout equipped with their 3.5 horse power air-cooled motor. The motor, together with the carburetor and muffler, is placed on the front axle, to make the currents of air created by the . motion of the vehicle as effective in cooling the engine as possible. A chain transmits the power from a sprocket on the engine shaft to the change gearing fastened to the reaches, and fro.11 this gear another chain runs to the compensating gear on the rear axle. The change gearing provides for a considerable range of speed. Chain driving is employed, the manufacturers say, on account of the low cost of maintenance and because it is practically noiseless. The gasoline tank is stated to hold sufficient fuel for a 60 miles run. and is placed underneath the seat, where are also located the battery and induction coil. The weight is given as a trifle over 400 pounds. The manufacturers state that they will gear the carriage to suit the purchase.
All Crest cars were built with the machinery entirely suspended on the frame, independent of the body, which is hung on flexible springs, and was entirely free from motor vibrations. The motors wee air-cooled and suspended on springs. The 1903 was provided with a direct shaft drive, long tubular steel with 28" Diamond detachable tires. The transmission had two forward speed and a reverse with a direct drive on high speed. The frame was especially designed for rough roads. The body has no machinery, water tanks, etc. havinng a large space for storage. The start up is unique for its simplicity of mechanism and control. The new Crest muffler made it very silent, and the 5 H. P. motor gave ample power. The finish and comfort of riding were first-class in every way. The wheels were either wire or wood and fitted with 28x2-inch Dunlop detachable tires. The car hds ample luggage space and had an extremely attractive design and finish.
The company was sold to Alden Sampson in 1905 and it was moved to Pittsfield and no other ones are known to have been built.
The Holmes Motor Vehicle Company, of East Boston, Mass., are exhibiting two types of friction driven cars which possess certain points of novelty. Type H is a four cylinder, five passenger vehicle, and Type S is a double cylinder opposed car of the same passenger capacity. The former is equipped with a Reeves4x4 inch, 24-28 horse power engine, cooled centrifugal pump, and six bladed aluminum, belt driven fan.Its ends carry the sprockets of the double chain-drive. The engine and its auxiliaries are, on the other hand, slightly movable on a sub-frame which is capable of sliding in a fore and aft direction upon four sets oflarge steel balls, six in a set, upon the main frame of the car. In order to cause engagement of the frictional drive, the engine upon its ball supported sub-frame is drawn toward the rear by means of two spiral springs. A ratchet pedal of the usual form serves to throw the engine unit forward against the action of these springs and breaks frictional contact between the flywheel and the friction wheel, which as usual is arranged slidably on the cross shaft. The fore and aft motion of the en-gine unit and its sub-frame is very slight. Control is by means of the engaging and disengaging pedal before mentioned, a side lever, moving on a notched quadrant, which determines the speed by sliding the friction wheel, an internal expanding foot brake acting on the rear hubs, and spark and throttle levers mounted above the steering wheel, but not turning with it.
1907 Holmes Tonneau Automobile
The Holmes automobile was put into production in 1906 by the Charles Holmes Machine Company, Cambridge, MA. with an air-cooled 30 mph five-seat air-cooled touring car priced at $1,375.00 or a water-cooled model for $1,400. Also offered were either a two-cylinder runabout for $650.00 or a four-cylinde for $750.00. The company went into bankrupptcy in 1907.
1901 Cannon Steam Racer
George Cannon was a student at Harvard when he built the racer. The burner was made by Peter Forg of Sommerville, MA and the chassis was made by Charles E. Miller accessory company of New York City. The body appears to have been made by Currier, Cameron, and CO. of Amesbury. It was one of their most popular styles of that period and they made bodies for several companies of the region. He entered it in the 1902 Brighton Beach race at Brooklyn and it ran a mile in one minute and five seconds, an amazing speed at that time. When he graduated from school, he worked for Grout automobiles in Orange, MA.
1902 Wheeler Runabout
O. D. Wheeler convinced his father who owned a machine shop into helping him build an automobile. Three were built and they were runabouts. The first was powered by an air cooled engine.Another one was built the following year. The next one had a water cooled single cylinder De Dion engine. They decided to proceed into production in 1902, but was unable to get financing. The third one was never sold and still exists.
His brother, Earnest was the general manager of the Acme Motor Car Co. at Worcester in 1912. It was a delearship for Knox and Velie automobiles. He also owned the Wheeler's Screw Press. Although not building cars, he would do special work on a Knox and Velie for a customer and slip his Acme name to it.
Marlboro Automobile and Carriage Company manufactured its first car in March of 1899 with its original name of Walker. It had a Mason twin cylinder five horse power engine that could travel up to thirty miles per hour. The initial price was from $700 to $1000. The body was made by Currier, Cameron, and Co. of Amesbury. By the end of the year, thirty cars had been made and sold and by this time, he had changed the name to Marlboro.
1900 Holyoke, "Little Elephant" Gasoline Trap
Charles R. Greuter was a Swiss Born engineer who designed and built the utomobile called the Holyoke. The Holyoke, was named after the Massachusetts town by the same name.
The Holyoke used one and two cylinder over head valve engines. Grueter invented the over head valve engine. The first Holyoke was large touring car with a two cylinder engine. In1903, one of the Matheson brothers visited the Holyoke factory and Grueter drove him back to Grand Rapids. MI, a distance of 1000 miles, in his Holyoke car witout any trouble.
They powered by a 24hp 4-cynlinder ohv engine In 1903, Matheson Brothers of Grand Rapids, MI, owners ot the Matheson Automobile Company, purchased the Holyoke factory and moved the Marheson company to Holyoke. Charles Grueter was hired as the designer and engineer for Matheson. He stayed with the until 1908.
1902 Burrington Runabout
B.G. Burington built a one cylinder 6 horse power car on a tubular frame with a 60 inch wheel base with chain drive and tiller steering. Its top speed was 20 mph and it could travel about a hundred mikles on a tank of gas. He never had a company, but he did sell a few of his runabouts according to registrations of them.
Lewis E. Warner was the son of the president of the Hampshire Bank in Northampton and an inventor of an electric carriage in 1898. It was a small two seater weighing 650 pounds. Its motor was encased in a small box placed just in front of the rear axle with current supplied by storage battery under the seat. It was a very quiett running automobile. Although poduction was considered with an $800 price tag, but no others were made.
1901 Englehart Dos a Dos
A.J. Englehart owned a bicycle repair shop in Northampton which was reported to be the largest in the country. In 1901 he built a gasoline car, but it is unknown if he had intended to build others. His car was tested on the city streets for some time. Its bicycle wheels were not too strong but the rest of the car was quite sturdy. It had a water cooled engine, a water tank in front of the dash board, and a gas tank just inside of the dash. It had two forward speeds and a reverse. Its total weight was 800 pounds. Its body was made by Currier, Cameron. and Co., Amesbury.
Designed by Charles Grueter, builder of the 1901 Holyoke, Holyoke, MA and later chief engineer at Matheson Automobile Co.
The K-D Motor Co. was formed to produced and American Automobile with the little known K-D engine invented by Margaret E. Knight and Anna F. Davidson, both female inventers. The K-D Motor Co. was also known as the Knight-Davidson Motor Company. The K-D automobile was a large 137 inch wheelbase five passenger touring car with wire wheels. Very few K-D automobiles were made and their cost was $6,000.00. Margaret E. Knight, no relationship to Charles Knight, designer of the Silent Knight engine, was a female inventor born in York, Maine in 1860. In 1913 Moore & Munger manufactured the rakish touring body for the Charles R. Greuter-designed Knight-Davidson prototype. Margaret E. Knight displayed the finished vehicle at that falls Boston Automobile Show hoping to license her sleeve-valve engine to an established automobile manufacturer.
Knight held a number of automobile related patents, many of which were assigned to the Knight-Davidson Motor Co. of Saratoga, New York (Anne F. Davidson, Beatrice M. Davidson, two wealthy relatives from Saratoga Springs financed the enterprise).
Unfortunately, Knight passed away before any licensing agreements could be established and no further vehicles are known to have been constructed with her engine.
From Her Biography
In the early 1900s prolific inventor Margaret E. Knight (1838-1914) established a workshop in Brookline, Massachusetts in hopes of developing a sleeve-valve engine. Between 1902 and 1904 she patented a number of improvements to sleeve valve engines and in 1903 was issued a patent for an automatic boring tool for boring or planing concave or cylindrical surfaces.
The New Incorporations column of the June 27, 1912 issue of the Automobile included a notice of the formation of the K-D Motor Co.:
GROUT & GROUT, Orange, Mass. Trade-Mark for Bicycles, Tricycles and all Vehicles Propelled by Motive Power. Filed May 13,1896. Patented June 23. 1896.
Our trade-mark consists of the words "New Home." The style of.lettering is unimportant and may be changed at pleasure without naterially affecting the character of our tradenark, the essential feature of which is the words "New Home." This trade-mark has been used continuously by us since May 14, 1895. The class of merchandise to whlch this trademark is appropriated is vehicles, and the particular description of goods comprised in said class upon which we see it is bicycles, tricycles, and all vehicles propelled by motive power. It is our practice to apply our trade-mark the vehicles by means of plates, on which is printed or stamped and sometimes painted n the vehicles
The three brothers, Carl, Fred and C.B. were set up in business by their father William H. Grout who had made sewing machines under the New Home name in partnership with Thomas H. White. The 1899-1901 cars were sold under the New Home name.
1898 Grout Gasoline Stanhope
Copied from the 1898 Horseless Age Magazine
The elegant gasolene carriage shown herewith is the first effort of Grout Bros., Orange. Mass., and they are so well pleased with its performance that they have decided to begin manufacturing them for the market. The vehicle weighs about 1,100 pounds, and is propelled by a 6 H.P. horizontal gasolene motor, having two cylinders with the cranks set at 180 degrees, thus avoiding disagreeable vibration. Ignition is by electric spark from a generator, and the motor is started by one turn of a crank in the usual way. All parts are self-oiling. All speeds from 4 to to 20 miles an hour may be obtained by means of a lever on the left hand side controlling a gear transmission which exhibits features not generally seen in this connection. The pivoted wheel steering is employed, the lever being situated in the center of the seat. A band brake on the countershaft is powerful enough to bring the carriage to a sudden stop. The wheels, fitted with three-inch pneumatics, have bronze aluminum alloy hubs, wooden spokes and steel rims. Electric side lamps and an electric gong complete the equipage. The Grout brothers are sons of the vice-president and superintendent of the New Home Sewing Machine Co., whose factory is at Orange. They will manufacture gasolene vehicles of any desired style, including delivery wagons, and are now engaged upon a new carriage, which will be brought out in the spring.
1899 Grout Gasoline Runabout
Copied from 1899 Horseless Age Magazine
Grout Bros., Orange, Mass., have issued their first catalogue, showing four styles of gasoline vehicles, the stanhope first built by them, a two-passenger trap, a four-passenger trap and a delivery wagon, varying in weight from 700 Ibs. to 1,400. and propelled by two-cylinder, horizontal gasoline motors. The new model Grout carriage will be ready to exhibit about Oct. I. It will show a number of original features, including a double braced frame, spring-suspended mechanism, novel compensating gear and devices for equalizing the strain of the road. Their new factory, specially constructed for the manufacture of motor vehicles, and which will accommodate 200.
The photograph shows one of the twelve delivery wagons recently built by Grout Brothers for a grocery firm in Orange, Mass. The gear and machinery are the same as used on the Grout surreys and dos-a-dos and the delivery body has a carrying space 3 feet wide, 3 feet back of seat and 2 1/2 feet high; it is provided with double doors in the rear.
An enclosed body model followed in 1901. An advertisement read "Guaranteed to Go Where Any Automobile Ever Went" It is described as "the first decisive step in the direction of an answer to the question". When will good automobiles be cheap enough for people of moderate means?" "It is built on strong commonsense lines, and gives the impression of a fine piece of automobile construction, which indeed it is, in every possible way."
1902 Grout Queen Stanhope E
Grout Brothers, Orange, Mass., sent us a photograph of a carriage with box front, which they state to be their latest production, and also call attention to a number of improvements in their new vehicles, viz.: Larger wheel base and tread, drop forged yoke around compensating gears, making it impossible for gears to pull apart and also keeping the two axles in perfect alignment; eccentrics and sprocket drop forged in one piece, doing away with thirteen separate pieces heretofore required; water tank holding 9 gallons more, with indicator on same; heavy roller chain, heavier engine; water tank carried to top of body; tank filler cover also carried to top of back boot which may be removed without taking out back boot, the latter setting inside and metal covered; feed water heater, water ram, larger gasoline tank. We find, they say, that by the use of the water ram or water lift we can fill our tanks of 36 gallons capacity in exactly five minutes, taking water at 40° Fahr. and raising it to 1400.
1903 Grout Tonneau Automobile
The 1904 Grout Touring Car was a touring model. It could seat 5 passengers and sold for $2000. The 2-cylinder engine was mounted horizontally at the center of the car, with the boiler at the front under the typical touring car hood. This engine produced 12 hp.. The car weighed 2200 lb. Also, in 1904, Grout introduced a range of conventional 4 cylinder gasoline engined cars.
1903 Grout Automobile, French Style
Grout's "Fienchie" Runabout.
One of the first concerns to perceive the demand for steam cars designed on what are termed gasolene lines, Grout Bros, Orange, Mass, have worked consistently to meet this demand. They have followed up their steam touring car. which attracted so much attention at last winters shows. With a runabout. appropriately named the "Frenchie." It is also furnished with a tonneau body.The lines and general appearance of the "Frenchie" appeal at first sight. The long wheel base. the business-like look of the car. with its hooded front and low and rakish body and angle iron frame, stamp it as a winner. An examination of its power plant and details of construction confirm this favorable impression. Both the boiler and the engine are located in front. the latter being positioned hormon After building steam cars exclusively for a number of years, the Grout Bros. Automobile Co., of Orange, Mass., has branched into the manufacture of gasoline cars as well, the first car having appeared early in the past summer; it was illustrated at the time in these pages. The accompanying engraving shows the latest model, a fourcylinder, 28-30-horsepower, side-entrance touring car with sliding gear transmission and side chain drive, built on up-to-date lines.
1905 Grout Racer with Cannon and Grout
The motor has separately cast cylinders, mechanically operated and interchangeable valves and is water cooled; the cylinders have a bore of 4 1-4 inches, and a stroke of 5 inches. The pistons are fitted with four rings each, and are lubricated by force feed. Crankshaft runs in five babbitted bronze bearings, there being three bearings between the main boxes at the ends of the crankcase. All bearings are attached to the upper half of the horizontally divided crankcase, so that the cranks and rods may be inspected by dropping the lower half of the case. Nickel steel forgings are used for the connecting rods; the wrist pins are hollow and are lubricated by splash from the crankcase. Gas is supplied by an automatic float-feed carbureter; ignition is by jump spark, with single coil and distributer. Water circulation is maintained by a gear pump driven from the camshaft.
A cone clutch of the familiar type is controlled by a pedal, in the customary manner ; it interlocks with both foot and lever brakes. The sliding gear transmission gives three speeds forward and one reverse, with direct drive on the high gear and no gears in mesh at any time except those that are actually working. The aluminum gearcase is oil tight and the shaft bearings are lubricated by splash, pockets being formed to catch the oil thrown up by the gears and carry it to the bearings; the shafts are hardened and ground.
Armored wood is used for the framing, and is well braced. The semi-elliptic springs, 42 inches long, are placed directly under the side members of the frame. Wheels are 30 inches in diameter and have 3 1-2 inch tires; large ball bearings are fitted. The wheelbase is 96 inches. Both front and rear axles are of three per cent, nickel steel of square section and solid; the rear axle is 1 1-2 inches and the front axle 1 3-8 inches square. Brakes consist of a band and drum on the countershaft operated by a pedal, and hub brakes connected to a side lever. Steering gear is of the worm and sector type, irreversible, and is inclosed in a dust-proof casing. Ignition and throttle levers on the top of the wheel are stationary, regardless of the turning of the steering wheel. A force feed mechai.ical lubricntoi supplies oil to the main frictional points. Gasoline is carried in a seamless pressed steel tank under the front seat, the capacity being fifteen gallons. The manufacturers state that the consumption of gasoline is about one gallon for eleven miles running. Standard finish is Brewster green, yellow running gear, gold striping and dark green waterproof leather upholstering. The equipment consists of a horn, two oil side lamps and a set of tools.
Baystate Automobile Company
In 1918, Richard Long, who had accumulated a small fortune by manufacturing canvas products for the government, decided to enter the automobile business. He purchased the body building business from A.G. Bela who had been making Winton and Franklin bodies in Framingham from 1916. To keep himself busy after his wife was killed in an aircraft accident in 1920, he decided to start making automobiles. He hired Herbert Snow, a well known automobile engineer, who had worked for some of the largest automobile companies and was between jobs, to design the car. Even before one sketch was drawn, Long had a name for his car, Bay State. It was made in Massachusetts, the Bay State, and it was going to be sold only in Massachusetts.
The 1922 Baystate was introduced on the mezzanine of the Hotel Commodore during the New York Automobile Show. There was an invitation to compare it with any automobile in any price range. The body built by Long was a masterpiece. All models of the Bay Sate were offered ranging from $1800-$2500. Soon he expanded from in-state to regional sales and soon he had dealerships in Chicago. In 1926, he was in the midst of changing locations to Worcester when money tightened. He had just built the largest building in the city for the Bay State. The banks refused more financing and by years end, he was out of business. During this four year spand, he had manufactured one of the finest cars built in the 1920's. All of this from a man who did not drive a car and had no driver's license
Copied from the 1922 Motor Age Magazine
Chicago, March, 25, 1922
The R. H. Long Co. of Worcester and Framington, Mass., producer of the Bay State automobiles, has opened a factory branch in Chicago, for the distribution of cars to dealers in Chicago, in Illinois and throughout the West. L. E. Commings, connected with the Long company for 22 years, is general manager and his assistant is J. A. Howlett, who was with the Dodge distributors in Chicago for two years. The company expects to obtain 12 dealers in Chicago and already has contracts with two. These are the Brennan & Doty Co. and the Warner Motor Sales Co. The factory branch will sell at wholesale only and expects to carry a stock of 120 cars at all times. The models and retail prices of the cars are: Phaeton, $1800; roadster, $1800; coupe, $2400; sedan, $2500. The car is assembled and is equipped with six cylinder Continental engine, and other standard units. The bodies are of aluminum. The R. H. Long Co. has for years been engaged in the manufacture of automobile bodies.
1925 Standish Sedan
Both the Standish and the Luxor were luxury cars and built by the Luxor Cab Mfg. Company owned by H.P. Molier. Also as with the Luxor, the Standish had nickel trimings instead of brass. The engines were different. The engine in the Luxor was a Buda four and the Standish had a contiental six. Prices for the closed model were $2525 and $2100 for the open. It was supposed to be built in the recent vacated R.H. Long's factory, but only one sedan and maybe a touring were made.
1925 Luxor Sedan Taxi
Except for the engines, there was very little difference between the Standish and the Luxor. Luxor did move into the vacant building that where once the Bay State automobile was made. The Luxor was made until 1928. It had one claim to fame; the supreme court ruled in its favor that it had a copyright to its colors.
When J.C. Moore built his first steam car at the turn of the century, it was known as the Moore Steamer, but when he started producing the car in 1901, the name was changed to Westfield.
Article Taken from the 1903 Automobile Journal review of the New York Automobile Show
The C. J. Moore Mfg. Co., Westtield, Mass., exhibited one of their largest gasoline touring cars finished complete and equipped with a four-cylinder 10 II. P. engine. This machine was made up of the various parts and equipments which the Moore Company supply to automobile manufacturers. It is a very handsome rig and attracted a great deal of attention. Two smaller sizes of the same model for 8 and 12 H. P. were also shown unfinished and minus power. The Moore Company make a specialty of supplying complete rigs minus power, either in the white or painted and upholstered and have a great variety of styles suitable for either steam or gasoline, but were unable to secure sufficient space to adequately show them.
1900 Loomis Runabout
Gilbert Loomis built his first car in 1896 which was a steamer, but it was not put into production, he invented a carburetor that he liked. In 1900 he organized his Loomis Automobile to produce his new car named for himself. His car cme in diffeent widths depending on the type of roads that were in use. He also sold components for anyone wanting to build their own cars.
The 1903 Loomis had a three cylinder water cooled upright engine and was driven by a bevel gear and chain. The frame was angle iron and wood. A worm and wheel steering gear was used. The wheel base was 87 inches with a 56 inch tread. The wheels were of the 30 inch artillery type with 3 1/2 inch detachable tires. The foot brake which was ordinarily used acted to expand internal metal members against drums secured to each rear wheel. There was also an internally expanding drum brake in the gear car. The engine shaft, which ran lengthwise of the car, was attached through a flexible coupling to the enclosed in an oil change speed gear. The separate clutch system was used having three forward speds and reverse. The well known Loomis carburetor and muffler naturally formed parts of the equipment. Throttle and spark control were located on the steering column, and one lever at the right of the operator controled all gears. Twelve gallons of gasoline was carried.
1921 Northway Sedan
Ralph E. Northway was the inventor of the Northway engines that was absorbed by General Motors. He Established his Northway Motors in 198 to build trucks. He produced his Northway automobile in 1921, the worst time ever to produce an automobile. The deep recession prevented any company to raise the money necessary for automobile manufacturing and the Northway company did not last through 1922
When the Duryea Brothers broke up their relationship with the Duryea Motor Wagon Company, Charles Duryea moved the company to Peroia, IL. After two years expermienting with another car, he built the Hampden car in Hampden, MA. Within a year, Stevens Arms Co. from Chicopee, MA, bougth the factory and moved it to its location in Chicopee. The first car built was in 1902 and was known as the Stevens-Duryea. The company ceased making cars in 1928.
Overman Wheel Co. and Overman Automobile Co.
Copied from the English Motor-Car Journal Magazine, 1899 Edition
The Victor Steam Motor-Cars. manufactured by the Overman Wheel Co., Chicopee Falls, Mass., are now exhibiting the Victor steam automobile at their works. They refer to it as perfectly automatic in character and as being so graduated that any speed from the barest motion up to whatever the owner wishes it geared to can be obtained. An average gearing is about 20 miles an hour. The vehicle is guaranteed for 25 per cent, gradients. Usually the engines are of 4 h.p., the carriage being a light one, with seating accommodation for two. The complete machine weighs about 600 pounds, and is equipped with 28-inch pneumatic rubber tires from 2 to 5 inches in diameter as ordered, a medium size being 3 inch. It is guaranteed to be perfectly safe, with no possibility of explosion.. Gasoline is used as a fuel to generate steam.
The 1902 vehicle was equipped with a detachable tonneau body seating either four or six persons. A touring box, a rumble seat or a plain rear body could be substituted for the tonneau. The boiler is of the vertical fire tube type, 23 inches in diameter and 18 inches high. The engine was a two-cylinder rated at14 horse power. The maximum speed of the engine is 5. A Peter Forg burner using gasoline fuel was employed. Three gasoline tanks with a combined capacity of 26 gallons were provided, and these were placed in the forward part of the body. The capacity of the water tank was 60 gallons, and a steam siphon is provided for filling it. A jet condenser and oil separator- served to increase the traveling capacity of the vehicle on one charge of supplies. The air pressure is maintained by means of a steam air pump. The power was transmitted from a countershaft to the driving wheels by means of a chain. The sprockets on the countershaft had eighteen teeth and those on the wheel hubs forty. All bearings, including those of the engine journals, were plain. The gearing to the countershaft was inclosed in an iron gear case. The machinery frame was constructed of steel angle frame. The wheel base was 84 inches and the tread 54 inches. Wood wheels of 34 inches diameter were used and 3 1/2-inch double tube Goodrich tires. A band brake was provided on each of the rear wheels. The weight of the vehicle empty was 2325 pounds, and the weight with fuel, supplies and equipment 3,000 pounds.
1903 Advertisement in the Automobile Journal
We are now the sole manufacturers and retailers of the famous Victor automobile and the Victor steam pumps. The Victor automobile is so well known that it requires no explanation. It is made in various styles. The Victor steam water and air pumps list at $30 each, and are the most reliable steam pumps on the market. Liberal discounts to agents. Write for interesting catalogue and prices. The Locomobile Company of America.
Rausch and Lang
1925 Rausch and Lang Electric
In 1920, the passenger car part of the of Rausch and Lang was sold to the Stevens -Duryea organization and moved to Chicopee Falls, Massachusetts. In 1922, Rauch & Lang Inc. started producing electric powered taxi cabs.
1930 Rausch and Lang Gasoline and Electric
This automobile was built by coordination between General Electric and Rausch and Lang financed by Edward Green, son of Hetty Green who was was the richest woman in the world in 1912. The cost for developing it was one million dollars. General Electric and Green owned controlling stock in Rausch and Lang. By using General Electric's engineers and Green's finances they designed and built the prototypes in 1929 and 1930. This Sedan is the only one still in existence and was shown at the Silverado Concours dElegance in 2001.
The idea for the Gasoline and Electric car was designed by Professor Elihu Thomason when he worked for General Electric and built the 1904 Gasoline-Electric car. This car is shown under the City of Lynn.
1904 Springfield, Ma Automobile Show
Duryea Wagon Works
The American automobile industry began modestly in 1895 when the Duryea Motor Wagon Company of Springfield, Massachusetts sold 13 identical gasoline-powered vehicles. The company would last only three years, however brothers Charles and Frank Duryea became the first Americans to attempt to build and sell automobiles at a profit. Thus opened the commercial period of the American automobile industry.
The first Duryea automobile, one of America's first gasoline-powered cars, was built in Chicopee, Massachusetts by brothers Charles E. and J. Frank Duryea in 1893. Charles, the designer, called on his younger brother Frank, a trained machinist, to complete the prototype as he attended to his bicycle business in Peoria, Illinois. (The first Duryea is now in the Smithsonian Institution.) The second Duryea was built entirely by J. Frank in 1895. It was this vehicle, with Frank as the driver, that won a major automobile race in America, the Chicago Times-Herald race, on Thanksgiving Day in 1895.
Charles Duryea Moved the Company to Perioa, IL at the latter part of 1898. Frank remaines in Massachusetts
Hampden Automobile and Launch Company
Following the breakup of his partnership with his brother Charles, Frank Duryea with two other investors, organized the Hampden Automobile and Launch Co. in September of 1900 in Springfield. The Hampden was a small 750 pound runabout with a two cylinder four stroke engine which could be cranked from the front seat. It was easy starting and handling. Only the prototype models were built in Sprringfield. In the fall Stevens Arms and Tool Co. in Chicopee noticed the car and purchased the company and moved the entire operation to Chicopee. It was renamed the Stevens-Duryea and began production in 1902.
1901 Hampden Runabout
1901 Hampden Advertisement
Knox Automobile Co.
The Knox Automobile Company was a pioneer in the automobile business in New England. The companys founder, Harry Austin Knox, was born in 1875 in the outskirts of Westfield and went to school at the Springfield Industrial Institute. His practical work was done at the Elektron Company, manufacturers of electric motors and elevators, conveniently located next to the school building. He graduated at the top of his class of twelve in 1894 and gave the graduation address. A few years later, Knox built his first three cars, with the help of his former classmate Herman Farr. The two men returned to Springfield and talked Elisha Cutler into forming the Knox Automobile Company. The business started in 1899 with the manufacture of a three-wheeled vehicle with a six-horsepower, air-cooled engine.
Overheating was a significant problem that could lead to an engine's destruction; water-cooling was the solution most often used, but was not without its faults. Knox's answer, air-cooling, was certainly simpler in practice, but its design required a grasp of metallurgy and thermodynamics that was unusually sophisticated for its time. What Knox did was to screw 1,750 threaded rods, 3/16-inch in diameter, into the single horizontal cylinder in place of the more conventional cooling fins. One look at this enormous bottle brush of a cylinder, and you understand why the car became known as "Old Porcupine." "The Knox Patent Air Cooling is superior to any air cooling system extant," the advertisements boasted. "The corrugated pins surrounding the cylinder radiate the heat and make it possible to obtain 32 square inches of heat radiating surface per square inch of outside surface of cylinders."
Fifteen were made in 1900 and 100 the next year. There was no reverse on the transmission, as the vehicle could turn a nine-foot circle. The three-wheelers were sold for cash right from the factory door. Though Knox had only a trade school education, he was an engineering genius. The company built everything from three-wheelers to tractors, buses, and the ultimate six-cylinder closed car with a 65-horsepower, water-cooled engine. The powerful six-cylinder cars won many hill climbs and races. Beginning in 1906, Knox built fireengines that made Springfield the first motorized fire department in the country. The company went out of business in 1927.
1901 Knox Delivery Wagon as shown in the 1901 July Edition of the Horseless age Magazine
In the space of twenty-seven years, Knox Automobile Co. had made some of the best and most diverse amount of models than any other company during this period. Disagreeing with his stockholders in 1905, Harry Knox left the company, and founded the Atlas Automobile Company also in Springfield.
1909 Morse Radio New Englander Roadster
Glenn Morse and George Readio were partners in building the Morse-Readio automobile. The four-cylinder motor has a bore of 454 in. and a stroke of 5 in., giving it a displacement of 354 in. and a rating of 36.1. The only model turned out is equipped with a 5-passenger baby tonneau body, which sells at $2,500. Faired cylinders of the L type are used, with valves in pockets on the side, of course. Thermo-siphon cooling is through a cellular radiator with a fan as an auxiliary, the latter being driven by belt. A high tension magneto and dry cells furnish the current respectively for the two ignition systems. The contracting band clutch is of steel on a cast iron drum, while the transmission, which is located on the rear axle affords three speeds and a reverse operated selectively. The wheelbase is 112 in., while the tires are 36 by 3V2 in. all around. Production was begun very shortly and the orders were finished within one year. They could not find financing to continue so the company became dealers for General Motors trucks, the Alco in 1913, and the Velie in 1914. .
The manufacturers of the Springfield top started life as the Springfield Cornice Works, a light structural steel fabricator located in Springfield, Massachusetts owned by Arthur P. Smith and managed by his younger brother Hinsdale Smith. The younger Smith had taken an early interest in the horseless carriage, and between 1896 and 1899 he designed and patented a number of automobile transmissions and gasoline engines.
Hinsdale built his own experimental horseless carriage in 1896 that was fitted with a wooden body built by the New Haven Carriage Co. The vehicle was powered by an American gasoline engine that delivered power to the rear wheels via Smiths own transmission via chain drive. Additional prototypes were built in the next few years that were fitted with Smiths novel spring-plate gasoline engine which was sometimes referred to as the Smith Springfield Motor.
The legendary engineer Charles H Martin moved to Springfield in 1898 to help the Smiths further develop their creations and by 1900, their first vehicle, the Meteor, was ready for production
The Meteor a French type automobile was powered by a 4-5 horse De Dion water cooled gasoline engineunder the bonnet along with the transmisson giving both easy access. The sun and planet type transmission provided two forward speeds and a belt provided the reverse.The water cooling system was devised by the Loomis company that used an upper and water chamber with a series of tubes connecting the chambers to the engine. A wheel, which was first used by European cars, was used for steering. A gear lever was at the right side of the wheel. Smaller levers that regulated the ignition and carburation were also located on the steering column. The 4 gallon gas tank held enough fuel to drive the car for a 100 miles.The body was supported by four elliptical springs and with its extra long body the riding was very smooth. It had 26 inch wire wheels with 2 1/2 inch pneumatic tires. It weighed 700 pounds. The Meteor's was discontinued because another compan had the name.
1902 Automotor Automobile
In 1901, Springfield Cornice Works put into production their new model, the Automotor and incorporated it under the Automotor Co. It had a an water cooled 4 cylinder 18 horse power engine with a 87 inch wheel base with a 56 inch tread and 30 inch artillary type wheels. Full elliptical springs were on the front and rear and rested on platform springs. The frame was steel channels and at the request of the customer, it could be filled wood. The water tank held 5 gallons which was under the rear of the frame. The gas tank held enough fuel for 200 miles. The ignition was jump spark using dry cell batteries for spark. It had three forward speeds and a reverse. The aluminum body had an angle iron frame and divided seats in front and high seats in the rear for three. It was a tonneau that weighed 1700 pounds
1905 Morse Steam Touring
Sewell Morse built his steamer in Detroit, MI, but was unable to find backers for his car. Thinking that he could possible find backing in the east, he settled in Springfield where he found several backers for his car. A sum of $250,000, most on paper, was the capital for his production which began in 1905. It was powered by a three cylinder single action 20 horse power engine with a flash generator and gasoline burner. a five passenger touring on a 103 inch wheel base. This was the company's only model. Production ceased in 1906.
1909 Atlas Delivery Van
After Harry Knox left the company that had been building Knox cars in Springfield, he established the Knox Motor Truck Company in 1905 to produce Atlas commercial vehicles. His former partners at his previous firm took him to court over the name. After he was forbidden from using the Knox name, he formed the Atlas Motor Car Company in late 1907. Harry Knox had proposed to the people producing the Sunset automobile in California that he produce the car under license. At first they refused, but changed their minds after the 1906 San Francisco earthquake. The Atlas of Springfield was thus based on the Sunset, even using the same two-stroke engine. This same 2-cylinder 22 horse power engine was used in the Atlas delivery vans and taxicab, starting in 1908. Harry Knox refined the engine and developed a 3-cylinder 34hp version of it. Later, a 60 hp 4-cylinder version was offered. The firm entered an Atlas in the 1909 Vanderbilt Cup being the first two-stroke car to enter a major long-distance road race.
This fact was promoted in subsquent promotional materials. Not long after, the two-stroke engine fell out of favor in the marketplace, and Knox added a Knight sleeve valve engine in 1912. These cars were called Atlas-Knights, and were bigger, five- or seven-passenger touring cars that cost approximately $3500. The company was bankrupt by early 1913, supposedly due to problems acquiring engines. Harry Knox then moved to Indianapolis to assist the Lyons brothers in producing the Lyons Knight.
1911 Hendee Torpedo Runabout
The Hendee was an experimental car manufactured by the same company that built the Indian Motorcycle to the design of James Jones who at one time worked for Knox Automobile Co. Its engine was a six, cast in blocks of three with detachable cylinder heads. The weight of the chassis was 1600 pounds complete with spare tire on the back. It had an appealing torpedo shaped body. It was never produced.
The Hendee was very famous for its Indian motorcycles, but there were a few cars built that were called Indian. Between 1917 and 1929, four cars were built. In 1929, the company put a stop to building any more cars. The expense in building these cars were enormous. Paul Dupont bought the factory in 1930 and a few of his Dupont Cars were built there.
The 1907 Bailey Speedster, priced at $2,500 was powered by a four-cylinder, water-cooled, two-cylce, 35 Horse power motor. It had a multiple disk clutch, selective, sliding gear transmission with three forward speeds and reverse and the wheel base was 108 inches with 34-inch tires with a weight of 2, 500 pounds with all accessories. A touring model was added in 1908 on the same chassis that sold for the same price.
1907 Bailey Gasoline Automobile
Brothers Julian and James Perkins made their Perkins prototype in 1906 at Springfield, MA.It was a runabout or roadster. However, they did not have the finances to go into production Betram Bailey was convinced to finance its production by being able to put his name on the car and the Bailey-Perkins Motor Car Company was established. Mre money was needed and several more investors gave money to the company in 1907. The company was renamed the Bailey Company and was capitalized at $500,000. In 1908 a tonneauu model was added to the line. There was just one model offered in 1910 and the company knew something was wrong. It should not have taken a genius to figure it out because of it adnormal height. The running board was two feet from the ground which made it difficult for the ordinary buyer to get into it with help. 1910 was its last year.
1911 Orson Touring
An ordinary car in an ordinary time in the automobile manufacturing business, some cars were built that had a way to make the filthy rich to wonder why they were so dumb. The Orson was such a car! It was just a large four-cylinder forty horse power touring car on a 130 inch base.
Horace M. Kilborn, Vice President of National City Bank of New York, wanted to build a car for bankers and millioners. It was to be called Orson for his nephew who had the idea. He would get 100 Wall Street bankers and lawyers to finance the production of one hundred cars. Once this production was reached, the car would be put on the market. The actual manufacturing of the car would be done in Springfield with Brightwood Mfg Co.doing the running gear and Springfield Metal Body Company building the body. The bankers cars were to be finished by 1911. Orson began to buy up the most prominent car companies in Springfield, but he failed. The company was exposed by a journalist that the company had a total of 80 carsbuilt for staggering sum of $560,000 dollars. National Surety Co. sued one of the owners, Daniel Brady, to collect an additional $2500 due on the automobile which he had already paid $3900. Brady said that he had already spent $1000 for repairs before his Orson blew up. "Brass Dan Brady" was Diamond Jim Brady's brother. I wonder if Diamond Jim hocked his diamond tie stud to bail out his brother.
There were a lot of rich fools who had some very expensive scrap metal.
In 1919, the company incorporated as Rolls-Royce of America and acquired its first US manufacturing plant in Springfield, Massachusetts. Production began the following year. By 1923, Rolls-Royce presence in the U.S. was substantial, with offices in Boston, Chicago, San Francisco, Cleveland, Hartford and Troy, NY, in addition to the original office in New York City. The company was further represented in 16 cities across North America.
The bodies for a Springfield-badged automobile were built in small numbers by Springfield Metal Body in 1907 and 1908. Designed by two local engineers, H.C. Medcraft and G.B. Bowersox, the car was sometimes known as the Med-Bow and manufactured by a syndicate headed by G.F. Hillman of Northampton, Massachusetts and included investors from both Springfield, Massachusetts and Springfield, Illinois.
1908 Springfield Tonneau Automobile
1908 Springfield Metsl Body Company Advertisement
It had a four cylinder vertical water cooled engine with a five inch bore and a 4 1/4" stroke. The valves were on one side, Interchangeable; operated by single cam shaft with cams integral with shaft, and mounted on Annular Ball Bearings. Idler Gear, Pump and magneto shaft mounted on genuine imported Annular Ball Bearings. It had selec tivetype transmission with sliding gear, three speeds forward and reverse; mounted on genuine imported F. & S. annular ball bearings. All gears and shafts of heat treated Chrome Vanadium Steel. The rear axle was a one piece seamless drawn Chrome Vanadium Steel housing of the clutch driven floating type. Gears and shafts Chrome Vanadium Steel, heat treated, mounted on genuine imported annular ball bearings. The front axle hadf a special I beam drop forged in one piece, of heat treated Chrome Vanadium Steel, with ball bearing steering knuckle aand the frame was reinforced spress steel. Also, the springs were of Vanadium steel. semi-elliptic front and three-quarter elliptic in the rear.
The ignition was a jump spark, 4 unit coil on the dash,storage battery, magneto, and two spark plugs in each cylinder. It was shaft driven wth large bevel gears. The brakes were two independent systems, internal expanding type with a 14" diameter with asbestos lining operated by a cam arrangement.
The sheet metal body was straight line for five or seven passengers and had hand burred leather for upholstery. The tires 36" with quick detachable rims. It had an 18" wheel steering wheel with a controlling mechanism on top. A twenty gallon gas tank was located below the front seat. The free and silent muffler was constructed in-house and had no back pressure. The clutch was a large cone withs ball thrust bearings. Several colors were available The wheel base wa 128" with a 56 tread and it weighrd 2,190 pounds. Included in the $2,500 price tag were two gas and three oil lamps, generator, horn. jack, spare tire, and a repair kit.
1908 Sultan Automobile with Tonneau
Copied from the 1909 issue of Horseless Age Magizine is an article describing the 1909 Sultan automobiles on display.
"The Sultan Motor Company, Springfield, Ma. have an exhibition of a light touring and a town car. The chassis is especially designed for taxicab work and meet the requirements of the Scotland Yard authorities. The most striking feature is the completely removable power plant, radiator, motor, and transmission being mounted with the dash on a subframe which may be disconnected removed from the machine within thirty minutes. It will be readily seen that this reduces the amount of capital necessary to invest in order to keep a certain number of cabs running. Also, the amount of necessary garage space is greatly reduced, and, owing to the much greater accessibility of the parts when the power unit is removed from the cab, repairs can in many cases be accomplished with much greater ease and celerity.The motor has four cylinders cast in pairs with all valves on the same side of the head. A Bosch magneto with fixed spark is used for ignition.
Sultan Demountable Motor
The carburetor is arranged so that the mixture can be controlled from the dash. The clutch is of the disk type and the transmisson has three forward speeds and reverse. The wheel base is 94"
Warwick Cycle and Automobile Co
1921 Martin Scootmobile
The Martin Scootmobile, designed by Charles Martin, was a three wheel vehicle powered by a two cylinder air cooled engine. It had a 60 inch wheel base and it weighed 150 pounds. It was priced at $250. He invented the rocking fifth wheel for trucks in 1915 and had moved his company to Springfield. His fifth wheel is stilled used today with modifications.
In 1921, the Martin Motor Company was organized with Charles Glidden as president of the company. Charles Glidden was the sponsor of the Glidden Tours and this marked his return to the aatomobile business. Even with his name, the company never made any sales and it folded in 1922.
1901 Springfield Delivery Van
Copied from the 1901 Horseless Age Magazine
The van here with illustrated has a frame or running gear of angle iron well fitted and bolted together. This framework carries all the running parts and mechanical parts of the vehicle. The body being entirely separate, can be removed in a few moments, and another substituted if desired or can be run without any body. The entire interior of the body is said to be available for load.
Power is supplied by two compound engines, one on each side, connected direct by chain to each rear wheel. There are no gears of any kind. The boiler, which is said to have ample capacity for all condic tions of running and to be non-explosive, has an automatic burner.
The wheels are of the best hickory with 3" solid tires. Fifty miles of fuel and water and quiick starting, smooth runing, and noiseless. Cannot be stalled unless both engines stop at the same time.
American Wheelock Engine Company
In 1895, the Pneumatic Carriage Company was organized under the laws of West Virginia, with an authorized capital of $5,000,000, and with offices at 253 Broadway, New York. The organizers had been conducting experiments with compressed air motors for street railway service for several years, and naturally turned toward the motor vehicle when it received its first impetus in America. The president and manager of the company is A. H. Hoadley, who has been in charge of the experiments at the works of the American Wheelock Engine Company, Worcester, Mass.
The first carriage built by the company, illustrated herewith, was completed in November, 1896. It has seating accommodations for six passengers, weighs 2.700 pounds, and will run 20 miles over ordinary good roads on one charge. A grade of 20 per cent is claimed to be surmountable. The wooden wheels are 30 and 42 inches respectively, and pneumatics of 4 inches diameter render riding as easy as possible. The motor, of the reciprocating type, weighs 400 pounds and operates at 350 revolutions, when the carriage is making 15 miles an hour. Ordinary compensating gear and hub steering are employed. In order to heat and expand the air before it enters the motor, it is surcharged with hot water, carried in the vehicle in a separate tank and kept at a temperature of 4oo degrees Fahrenheit. Five pounds of water are required for each mile traversed. All the above machinery is spring-supported, to relieve it from the shocks of the road.
This carriage has been tested for the past year or more in the streets of Worcester and Washington. D. C.
1901 Taft Steam Runabout, Worcester
William E. Taft was the inventor of the steamer bearing his name. It had cross compound engine designed by Gustave Hoist with a water tube boiler and a hydrocarbon burner. He spent the most of 1901 trying to find financial backing and selling stock trough the area at 50 cents a share. He was able to build a factory that bore his company's name " The United States Mobile and Power Company. His automobile received favorable reviews from several periodicals of the time, but he went bankrupt. His property was in the hands of the mortagee and was sold at public auction in 1902.
1897 Morgan Motor Carriage
The Morgan automobile, built by the Morgan Carriage Co. Worcester, MA, was unguainly with a small gas burning boiler, located under the seat fastened to a shaky body riding on four flimsy bicycle wheels. With this unflattering description copied from Beverly Kimes book, " American Automobiles from 1805-1942", it is stated that it ran very succesfully. It had a 5 horse power water cooled vertical motor and was special designed to be very light. It had sprocket chain drive. It had three speeds that could reach 20 mph and a reverse that went 3 mph. The gas tank held 5 gallons which was enough to run for 200 miles at full speed. The speeds are three, two ahead at ten and twenty miles per hour, and one backward at three miles. The gasolene tank holds five gallons, which is enough for a ten-hour run at full power all the time. The water tank holds enough to keep the cylinder cool at all times, the size having been arrived at only after a number of experiments.The control of the automobile wasvery simple and effective. The driver had both hands in use, the right to steer with, the other to control the forward or backward movement, the speed changing, stopping and starting device. An emergency band brake was provided which was worked by the foot and was capable of stalling the motor when developing full power. Therefore, if the motor got beyond control, all the operator had to do was to put his foot on the brake and stop the vehicle The weight was 750 pounds all told.
Article and photos copied from the 1904 June issue Horeless Age Magazine
The manufacture of steam trucks has recently been taken up by the Morgan Motor Company, of Worcester, Mass., whose engineer, Ralph L. Morgan, was formerly with the International Motor Car Company, of Toledo, Ohio, and designed the Toledo steam carriages of that company.
In 1901, the Crompton Lom Company of Worcester decided to enter into the automobile market. Not taking any chances, they made a steamer and a electric. After experimenting with the two, it was decided to use steam power. The compton was organized in March, 1902 as the Crompton Motor Carriage Company.It was first shown at the 1903 Boston Automobile Show, where it go some considerable press. Evidently, a few were sold through 1905 when the factory burned and the company was out of business.
1903 Crompton Runabout
1903 Horseless Age Magazine Report on the Boston Automobile Show
Crompton Motor Works, Worcester, Mass. exhibited a steam car of elegant and substantial appearance and excellent finish which embodies some features differing radically from ordinary steam engines. The boiler equipment is decided noveland consist of twenty-four different sections or rather twenty-four distinct fire boilers, twelve on each side of the rear portion of the body. Each of these small boilers which all deliver steam into a common pipe andare fed from a common water supply consisting of steel shells 3" in diameter an carries seventeen copper lines. Each boiler is heated from a ringer burner and twelve of these burners are housed in a single burner plate, one of which is directly under each of the two batteries of boilers. Each burner is supplied from a single source and has interconnecting passage, relighting any particular burner. It is equipped with a horizontial four cylinder engine with each cylinder one above the other and can be lifted out by unscrewing a plate that supports the motor. The water pumpis of the directing acting type and an auxiliary hand pump is supplied The 47 gaqllon water tank is located under the seat and the two five gallon gas tanks are on the dash. The running gear is of structial steel with front and rear eliptical springs. The front wheels are 36 inches and the rear ones are 38 inches. The steering is by wheel with worm gearing.
In researching material for this book. I have learned one important lesson: God made man in his own image and gave him the knowledge that he could accomplish anything if he had the determinion to do so. My desire was to put together in a book form what other people had published for 30 years. It has taken me four years to do so and I have learned more than I ever dreamed. This web site was not created to be fancy, but as factual account of what took place. Because research is still being done and being added when found, please keep refering to this page.Thank you for taking time to reading it.
February 17, 2012